Brick: dimensions. size of silicate white brick

Brick: dimensions. size of silicate white brick
Brick: dimensions. size of silicate white brick
Anonim
brick dimensions 250x120x65

Throughout the history of its development, brick has undergone many changes. But until now, this piece of artificial material remains the most used stone for low-rise construction.

The age limit of a brick, or Is it time for him to retire?

Of the many building materials, only wood or stone can compete with brick in the history of use. The first references to its use are found in many written records of Asia. A brick was also found during excavations in the territory of ancient Mesopotamia and China. The civilizations of Egypt, Greece, Rome, and later Byzantium, widely used this material in construction. So, according to the most conservative estimates, the age of clay bricks is at least 5-10 thousand years.

History of sizes of ceramic stones, plinths and bricks

Of course, the products of that time looked a little like modern ones. It was far from the invention of clay firing technology, and the linear dimensions of ceramic bricks were very different from the current ones. But already the ancient Greek clay stones that were used for construction were dried in the fire. Kilns that were built next to the object,were temporary and were dismantled after preparation of the products. Together with marble, brick, which at that time ranged in size from 600 × 300 × 30 to 600 × 300 × 90 mm, was one of the main building materials in Greece. In Byzantium, the art of masonry received a new impetus in development. Craftsmen of that time used methods of combining with other building materials and tiles, which made it possible to build magnificent ceramic structures.

The era of oblivion and resurrection

ceramic brick sizes

During the Middle Ages, many technologies of antiquity sunk into oblivion, as the most affordable raw materials were used for the construction of buildings in Europe - natural stone, wood and sometimes adobe. But in the Eastern Roman Empire, which for a long time remained the most influential state in the region, the art of laying ceramic blocks was preserved and developed. Byzantine fired brick, which varied in size (from 290 x 115 x 31 mm to 350 x 350 x 51 mm), was for a long time the most popular building material of the early Middle Ages. In the 15th century, Constantinople fell, but the skill of its craftsmen was not lost. The fugitive inhabitants of the empire, who rushed to Europe, largely contributed to the development of the city-republics of Italy and the most powerful states on the territory of modern France, Germany, etc.

brick dimensions

Evolution of the qualities of bricks: weight, dimensions, raw materials

In the future, brick production technology has continuously developed. To identify characteristicsmaterial and maintaining strict criteria for its production, the material was branded. Its subspecies, clinker, invented in the Netherlands, has also become widespread. Distinctive features of its production were a constant firing temperature, which increased to 1100-1500 оС, and the use of finely ground fusible clays as raw materials. The generally accepted Dutch dimensions of ceramic bricks ranged from 150 x 70 x 35 mm (the so-called midget) to 280 x 130 x 80 mm (monastic size). There was also a large-format view of it - 280 x 130 x 70 mm, named after St. Martin. It was used for the construction of places of worship and towers. The name of the clinker brick comes from the characteristic klink sound. It arose when tapping on a quality-made product. By the tonality and distinctness of the "ringing" of the brick, experienced craftsmen determined the purpose of the material. Stones with impeccable sound and appearance were used for the construction of load-bearing structures or cladding. The rest of the material that fell under the culling was used in the construction of fences, paving streets and in other, less important areas. As a result, clinker, which was resistant to mechanical stress and withstood more than 300 freeze-thaw cycles, became the pinnacle of development of full-bodied ceramic products. Based on it, a school of building construction was formed in Western Europe, which has not given up its positions so far.

dimensions of a single ceramic brick

Size optimizationceramic wall materials in Russia and Europe

The first attempts to standardize the size of bricks have their roots in hoary antiquity. In Russia, these steps were taken by Peter I. Under him, brick, the dimensions of which were 280 × 140 × 70 mm, became the most preferable. Control then was carried out with the help of special measures that were with each master. This achieved some unification. She, when tied to the stigma of the manufacturer, brought scammers to clean water. After all, all attempts at standardization of that time ran into opposition from breeders who sold products by the piece and sought to reduce their size to save materials. Tendencies to optimize the size of ceramic stone were traced throughout the 17th-20th centuries not only in Russia, but also in European countries. This was due to the convenience of working with standard products, which did not complicate styling due to their small size or excess weight. At the same time, the use of different-sized ceramic stone was gaining popularity in Europe, which gave the building charm and originality. This is the reason for the wide range of materials, which is presented below.

Types and sizes of pottery in different countries

The most popular brick in the past and now, the dimensions of which are displayed in millimeters according to the international system of measurements.

Dutch:

  • Lilliputian (150 x 70 x 35);
  • monastic (280 x 130 x 80);
  • St. Martina (280 x 130 x 70 mm);
  • small monastery (285 x 135 x 85);
  • bigmonastery (285 x 135 x 85).

Belgian:

  • "Arrows" (180 x 85 x 50);
  • "Brussels" (200 x 95 x 60);
  • "Virginia" (210 x 100 x 70);
  • "Roman" (220 x 105 x 40);
  • "Module 50" (190 x 90 x 50);
  • Roman enlarged (240 x 105 x 40).
  • brick sizes price

German:

  • 8" Goldstein (190 x 90 x 40);
  • 8-inch (195 x 92 x 50);
  • OF (220 x 105 x 52);
  • WF (210 x 100 x 50);
  • WF thick (210 x 100 x 65);
  • roman (240 x 115 x 40);
  • monastic (330 x 250 x 69).

Danish:

  • standard size (DNF) (228 x 108 x 55);
  • monastic (290 x 140 x 90).

European:

  • EF (240 x 100 x 71);
  • thin brick (DF) (240 x 115 x 52);
  • 2 DF (240 x 115 x 113);
  • 3 DF (240 x 175 x 113);
  • 4 DF (240 x 115 x 238);
  • 8 DF (240 x 240 x 238);
  • 10 DF (240 x 300 x 238).

Swedish:

standard (250 x 120 x 62)

Russian:

  • one and a half (250 x 120 x 88);
  • single brick - dimensions 250x120x65 mm;
  • double (250 x 120 x 138).

Norwegian:

standard (230 x 110 x 65)

Austrian:

standard (250 x 120 x 62)

Prussian:

monastic "Marienburg" (320 x 150 x 90)

Babylonian (310 x 180 x 70).

Stone of Byzantium (290 x 115 x 31).

Russian brick and its dimensions today

Russian piece materials made of clay acquire their modern shape only in 1927. Somewhat later, the dimensions of a single ceramic brick and their values ​​\u200b\u200bin one and a half and double form appear in the regulatory documentation. Finally, these data are approved with the introduction into use of a conventional unit of measurement of structural elements of buildings and materials, which, according to the latest edition of GOST 28984-91, was named "module". Interestingly, the term of a one-and-a-half brick itself is not confirmed mathematically, since its height compared to a single brick is 88: 65 ≈ 1.35. This definition came into professional jargon from building codes and regulations. Most often, this term implies the size of silicate white brick, which is 250 × 120 × 88 mm. The production of this product from sand and lime became available only in the 20th century after a qualitative leap in the industrial production of building materials chemistry. Using the methods of semi-dry pressing and autoclave synthesis, silicate brick, the dimensions, price and strength characteristics of which are not satisfactory, has occupied the niche of structural materials that work outside the influence of moisture and high temperatures. After all, the cost of 1 m3 of such products starts from $180, which is why they are in demand.

silicate white brick size

Conclusion, or In the case of bricks, everything is onlybegins…

The history of the development of ceramic blocks and their standard sizes once again confirms that further changes in the use of these piece materials are not far off. After all, the evolution of the construction industry does not stand still.

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