In our article we want to talk about a very interesting berry. What is cloudberry, not everyone knows. Many have heard of it, but have not tried it. In European countries, this culture is practically unknown. And this is not surprising, since it does not grow everywhere. In Russia, it can be found in the Far East or Siberia, and even then only as a wild plant, since it is difficult to grow a crop. In our article, we want to talk about what cloudberries are and what are their beneficial properties.
Where and how does culture grow?
It is worth noting that cloudberries grow in regions with very harsh environmental conditions. You can find it even beyond the Arctic Circle. In our country, it grows in the Far East and Siberia. Cloudberries are also found in Sweden, Scandinavia, Norway, England and even Alaska. In Finland, they even issue coins with the image of a berry.
What is cloudberry? This is an unusual culture that has adapted toliving conditions in the forest-tundra and tundra. The berry prefers to grow in mountainous regions, on wet and swampy lands, on mounds and plains. Growing, the plants form a dense carpet, on the surface of which translucent amber berries are visible. The crop is very productive, up to a thousand kilograms can be harvested from one hectare.
Description of culture
What is cloudberry? This is a small squat plant, reaching 13 cm in height. The culture has a very branched root system. An interesting fact is that the roots of the plant are able to go two meters deep.
Culture is classified as a cross-pollinated form, it produces female and male flowers. The leaves of the plant are small in size and have jagged edges. The berries are located in closed sepals, which open after the cloudberries ripen.
Description of the plant will be incomplete if you do not remember that the berry is very similar to raspberries. In the process of ripening, it first turns red, and then becomes yellow and translucent. Its color is very reminiscent of a shade of amber. The berries are incredibly hard at first, but become soft and juicy as they ripen. Cloudberry blooms in May, and you can collect it at the end of July and in August.
The useful properties of cloudberries have been known for a long time. Its use in folk medicine is due to the fact that the berry contains a huge amount of nutrients. Cloudberries contain vitamins: E, PP, B, C, A. The culture has a rich set of organic acids: salicylic, malic,lemon. As for minerals, cloudberries are rich in aluminum, phosphorus, magnesium, silicon, calcium, iron, aluminum. In addition, the berries are rich in tannins and pectin, dietary fiber, fiber, sugar and water.
What are the useful and dangerous properties of cloudberries? Due to the large number of valuable substances in the composition of the berry, it has the following properties:
- Suppresses the growth of pathogenic flora in the gastrointestinal tract.
- Has a pronounced antimicrobial effect.
- Improves the functioning of the respiratory system.
- Kills giardia.
- Strengthens the immune system, helping the body recover from illness.
- Stimulates muscle function and brain function. Helps to restore strength after physical exertion.
- A strong antioxidant that can prevent atherosclerosis.
- Makes blood vessels more elastic, regulates blood clotting.
- Has a strong diuretic effect, relieves swelling, removes toxins, strengthens the body.
- In folk medicine, cloudberries are used as an effective remedy for scurvy in the absence of vitamin C. The berry was a real salvation for polar explorers who were on expeditions for a long time.
Are there any contraindications to the use of cloudberries? Experts have not yet identified any specific contraindications for the use of preparations from the berry. However, you should not use berries during periods of exacerbation of stomach and duodenal ulcers, with gastritis.
Also, you can not eat cloudberries with individualintolerance.
Flowering and fruiting
Under natural conditions, cloudberries ripen first from wild berries. In May and June, single flowers appear on the tops of the stems, painted in white or pink. Outwardly, they seem to be the same. But it's not. Some flowers develop only pistils, while others develop only stamens. This means that the flowers are unisexual. Male flowers are larger, but the fruits in the future are formed only from female ones. In nature, everything is thought out to the smallest detail. Pollen from male flowers pollinates female flowers, so both are needed.
Ripe berries appear in July. They are a complex drupe, which is shaped like a raspberry. Each of them consists of small juicy fruits fused into a berry. Unripe cloudberries are colored red. In the future, it gradually becomes yellow and transparent. Ripe berries have a delicate, sweet and sour taste.
Cloudberry, like other shrubs, is preserved in winter with the help of rhizomes. In winter, the ground part dies off. And with the advent of spring, new shoots grow from rhizomes.
Choosing a landing site
The beneficial properties of cloudberries have long been known. Since the culture grows only in certain regions, it is almost impossible to find it for sale. For this reason, gardeners are trying to grow cloudberries on their plots.
Under natural conditions, culture most often grows in swamps. Of course, you will not find such places in home gardens. Therefore, experienced gardenersrecommend creating suitable conditions on several beds.
Growing cloudberries in the garden is not easy. For landing, you must choose a well-lit place. They dig trenches at least 50 centimeters deep. Polyethylene is laid out at the bottom with several holes to drain excess moisture. The upper part of the soil removed when digging trenches must be mixed with acidic peat, after which the resulting substrate is poured into the pits. From above, the soil must be well watered. Under natural conditions, cloudberries grow on lands with an acidity level of pH 4.5-5. The faithful companion of the plant is mycorrhiza. This is nothing more than a fungus on the root system, helping the culture to develop even on poor soils. For growing plants in the garden, you can purchase a mycorrhizal preparation in flower shops that will help the bushes take root.
Methods of reproduction
Planting and caring for cloudberries will require some effort from gardeners. First of all, you need to find the bushes of culture. The easiest way is to dig them out in the forest and transplant them to your site. This option is possible if you live in a region where the culture grows.
You can get seedlings from seeds extracted from ripe berries. Sowing material is immediately planted in boxes with fertile soil mixed with acidic peat. Seedlings can be planted in open ground only after wintering.
The most difficult way to propagate cloudberries is cuttings. To receive materialit is necessary to cut the cuttings on the crop plantations. Then they are placed in a nutrient substrate and watered well, covered with a film. For rooting, it is necessary to maintain a high level of humidity. The cuttings will take root closer to the fall. You can transplant them into open ground immediately or wait until the next season.
Planting and care
You have already learned about what kind of berry it is, read about the beneficial properties of cloudberries and contraindications. Planting and caring for a crop is the next issue to be considered in this article.
Cloudberry bushes are planted in a prepared area with very wet soil. In the future, you will have to regularly check how moist the soil is on the site, because cloudberries naturally grow in swamps. We have already mentioned that plants need a high level of soil acidity. Watering with tap or well water can provoke the appearance of chlorosis. In order to avoid problems, it is necessary to add ground sulfur to the soil. In addition, you can slightly acidify the water with citric acid before watering. The basic rule for growing cloudberries is regular soil moisture.
It is worth noting that little is known about the care of cloudberries at home. Culture is rarely seen in gardens. Perhaps in the future, industrial cultivation of the crop will be established. The first attempts have already been made in Finland, where for the first time in the world greenhouse cultivation of valuable berries was established. The essence of the technique is that the necessary conditions are artificially created for growing a crop.
Whenwith proper care, optimal humidity and light levels, you can get berries throughout the year. In greenhouse conditions, it is possible to harvest up to 8 kilograms of crop from 100 sq. m.
Roots, leaves and berries are used to prepare medicines. In the cosmetology industry, oil from the seeds of the culture is actively used. It is added to masks and creams. The oil acts as a very powerful antioxidant, preventing the appearance of age spots and wrinkles.
Fresh berries are good in the fight against scurvy and beriberi. Fresh cloudberries have a long shelf life (up to three months). To increase the shelf life of the berries are soaked. Soaked cloudberries have almost the same properties as fresh ones. A decoction of the leaves and roots of the plant has a pronounced diuretic effect. But tinctures are used for metabolic disorders and bleeding.
When growing a crop, it is necessary to apply fertilizer several times a season. With the advent of spring, you can feed the plants with mineral solutions, organic mixtures or manure. Immediately before fruiting, you can use biogrowth stimulants.
Diseases and pests
Despite the fact that the culture grows in the wild, when growing in the garden, gardeners may encounter the fact that plants infect raspberry pests: aphids, spider mites, stem flies, strawberry-raspberry weevil, etc. insecticides will help with insects: "Karbofos", "Aktellik",Metaphos.
To prevent the appearance of fungal diseases in the spring, it is recommended to treat plants with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid. The frequent use of chemicals adversely affects the quality of the fruit, so if possible, it is worth using folk methods to control pests and fungi.
In general, cloudberries are unpretentious, but require a high level of humidity. This is precisely the difficulty of growing it on personal plots.