Juniper is a plant that has not only medicinal properties, but also a tree that is used to decorate the garden. He, like most coniferous representatives, remarkably tolerates a haircut, and due to slow growth, it does not require constant updating. Such an unusual and beautiful object will decorate the site throughout the year. A variety of shapes, colors will help to realize the most unusual ideas. Pruning the juniper in the spring will make it more aesthetic, but in order not to harm the plant, it is required to do it wisely.
This is an evergreen coniferous long-liver of the cypress family. Arborescent juniper grows up to 20 m and has a conical and pyramidal shape with scaly or needle needles. Shrubs often reach half a meter, its branches are spreading and flexible enough to form a thick and lush carpet.
The plant blooms very beautifully: female buds have rounded light green bumps, andmen's ones look like earrings with several stamens. Juniper is a forest inhabitant of the northern territories, but nowadays it is grown everywhere. Very often, bushes decorate country houses, summer cottages, as well as urban areas.
The most famous today are the following varieties.
- Common juniper. The plant has a cone-like crown, the maximum height reaches 3 m. It tolerates winter frosts well and is unpretentious in care. The leaves are small and prickly formations 1.5–2 cm in size. It is recommended to collect cones closer to October. Common juniper pruning occurs in early spring, before active flowering begins.
- Virginian. One of the huge tree-like species that reaches up to 20 m. The plant grows quite quickly and is resistant to pests and diseases. The needles are dark green in color and needle-shaped or scaly in shape. Used to produce essential oil.
- Horizontal. It is also called prostrate, as it grows up to 4 m wide. The height rarely reaches half a meter, because it is a creeping plant. Hardly withstands dry air and develops very slowly. Pruning juniper horizontalus should be done carefully so as not to damage the main branches.
- Chinese. This is a tree-like shrub that grows up to 20 m. At the same time, its growth is very slow. At the age of 10 years, it is only 1.5 m. It is frost-resistant and difficult to tolerate dry air.
- Cossack. One of the representatives of the genuswhich is poisonous, therefore it is forbidden to use its cones. The shrub grows up to half a meter and creates a 2-meter crown. If the pruning of the juniper is not done on time, then the bush forms dense thickets. This plant is often used to strengthen the soil.
Plantings bring not only aesthetic pleasure, but also noticeable benefits, as they purify the air with a coniferous aroma.
Before you plant noble needles, you need to choose a lighted and open place. If the plant is placed in the shade or near the wall, then you can not count on its decorative and sophisticated appearance. Juniper will lose beauty and grandeur, become sickly and lethargic. The nature of the required soil depends on the variety and species. Most of the representatives are undemanding to the soil, they grow well both in calcareous, sandy, and in loam. However, there are varieties that require their own specific conditions. The best solution would be a mixture of coniferous earth, peat and sand in equal proportions. Then it is required to carry out mulching around the trunk with the help of peat with the addition of wood shavings. The pit breaks out depending on the size of the seedling, and the depth is two bayonets of a shovel. After the procedure is completed, the plant must be watered directly under the root.
Due to its decorativeness, juniper is a great solution for a young garden. A group of several seedlings is able to immediately fill the voids and createnice composition.
For planting light-loving varieties, an open and well-lit area is selected with sandy or loamy soil, which is well saturated and moistened.
A live formed hedge of silver-blue juniper will become a bright accent of landscape design. If the earth is clayey and heavy enough, a mixture of peat, garden and coniferous soil, as well as sand is added to it. Before planting, a pit must be drained, broken brick or stone is poured into it.
Plants of all varieties are planted very quickly so that the root system does not have time to dry out, but carefully enough so as not to damage the young shoots and the earthen ball. Then it is abundantly watered and hidden from the direct rays of the sun. The density of placement depends on the landscape composition - whether it will be a hedge, group or solitary planting. After the plant takes root in the first spring, the juniper is pruned. It must be done carefully so as not to damage the leading branches, as this will affect beauty and growth in the future.
Growing a seedling
Time intervals must be observed at the time of seed collection. It is better to make a supply of not quite ripened at the end of summer than finally ripened in the fall. This will increase the likelihood of germination. The prepared planting material must be planted immediately, but it is necessary to prepare for the fact that, due to the hard cover, the seeds will give the first shoots only in the 2–3rd year after sowing. Also, if you don’t want to wait so long, you can take a plant home,previously dug in the forest. It is imperative to mark parts of the world on its trunk in order to get as close as possible to its growth in its natural environment. The lump of "native" land should be weighty, with a preserved outer layer of humus.
If you choose the right varieties that are resistant to domestic climatic conditions, then the care of young plants will be minimal. They practically do not get sick and are not damaged by pests. Active juniper care is required in the spring: pruning, spraying and top dressing. Complex and nitrogen fertilizers are used for it. In no case should cow or bird humus be poured under the plant, as it will burn out and die. And it is also not recommended to loosen the soil around, since the root system belongs to the surface type, because of this, the nutrition of the trunk will deteriorate, and the juniper will simply begin to wither. For him, it is sufficient to mulch the soil with the help of coniferous land harvested directly in the forest.
A huge plus of juniper is the minimum care requirements. The active period begins only at the moment of rooting. Once a week, you need to water and spray the branches with water, thanks to which the plant will be better strengthened in the ground. In moments of active sunny days, it is recommended to darken it. And also do not forget about cleaning the environment from weeds.
In winteryoung growth is covered with mulch. After the onset of spring, it is removed so that the trunk does not rot and the juniper does not die. Pruning and care in the future should be done carefully, since during this period the tree will gain its main strength. Watering is done only in hot summers, when dry days actively prevail. Then it is enough to pour water under the roots once a month. If you constantly spray the plant, then it will have a more delicate appearance. It is not necessary to fertilize often, this is done only with very slow growth.
Annually, the near-stem circle is expanded, it must correspond to the diameter of the crown. It is also required to mulch the outer area of the earth to protect the plant from weeds. Due to the fact that it grows very slowly, frequent pruning of the juniper is not required. It is only necessary to occasionally remove dried branches or those that grow inharmoniously.
Such a coniferous plant, even without a haircut, can give the site a beautiful and rich look. It is necessary only for some of its varieties, the branches of which are scattered randomly and randomly. Juniper pruning is done when they want to give the plant a unique shape or when creating hedges, then this is done several times a season. Thanks to this, gardeners are trying to restrain growth and make the bushes more compact. These conditions are typical for trailing varieties such as Sky Rocket or Blue Arrow.
In this process, care must be taken not to damage the youngjuniper bushes. Pruning and shaping are done only after a serious inspection of the plant for the presence of large branches that are either knocked out of the crown or fall due to their weight. It is necessary to cut them so that they tend to the side, but at the same time do not leave the plant bald. Some cultivars, such as Blue Chip, are unable to make a beautiful shape, and need this procedure only to remove old and dried branches that look sick.
Shearing rules are universal for many conifers. To do this, you need to pick up those plants that are already a year old after planting in open ground. It is better not to touch specimens that do not feel well during the adaptation period. Varieties that are native to the local fauna will be ideal for clipping, as they are acclimatized and tolerate artificial changes in their shape well.
It is not always necessary to choose unusual figures to decorate the territory, it is recommended to stick to the natural crown and only emphasize it by removing unnecessary branches.
Spring pruning of junipers is always stressful for the plant, which can harm it. Therefore, it is necessary to remove only 1/3 of the entire green mass. You can not leave bare branches, as the plant has dormant buds, and the knots will not be able to become covered with needles again in the future, but simply wither.
Tools and remedies
Conifers have interesting and unique properties, one of which is poisonousness. Juniper is just that plant, essentialoil which can adversely affect the human body. If you have to cut the "Cossack" variety, then you must use gloves so as not to harm the skin. It must be remembered that the resin does not wash out of it, which means that a protective suit or change of clothes is simply necessary. Juniper pruning in the spring is done with a well-ground secateurs. In the process, it needs to be regularly wiped of resin in order for it to work properly.
- The right haircut does little to change the appearance of the plant.
- The main tools are sharp scissors, secateurs, saw and knife.
- Even before the moment of shaping, it is necessary to decide what will be the ultimate goal - rejuvenation, thinning or landscape figures.
- Terms for pruning junipers are quite limited, these procedures are performed only in the spring.
- Haircut is required to be carried out only a couple of millimeters above the eye. Moreover, it must be a kidney growing outward.
- It is better to make the cut not very deep, so as not to touch the bearing branches, but at the same time, there should not be any protruding "stumps".
- To ensure good growth, be sure to remove:
- wild shoots that grow directly from the roots and have a very different leaf shape;
- dying, diseased and damaged branches and twigs;
- fork-shaped large forked crowns when growing one next to the other, because one day they can break.