Evergreen conifers always attract attention, and all thanks to fluffy and fragrant twigs, beautiful and slender shape. As a rule, these are the inhabitants of the forests, they are poorly adapted to the polluted city air. Therefore, in order to enjoy the beauty and aroma, it is best to plant a coniferous plant in a garden in a country house or a country house. Many landscape designers are advised to pay attention to a tree such as Nordmann fir. Caring for her is quite simple, the most important thing is to choose the right place, compare the conditions that are most suitable for her, with the climate in your region. In addition, it does not require additional pruning or crown formation, having a naturally beautiful shape.
Nordmann fir: description
This evergreen tree is native to the mountains of the Caucasus and Asia Minor. It differs from the white variety in a higher decorative effect. The color of the bark is light gray, matte. The needles are dark green, saturated shade with a characteristic luster and a length of 15 to 40 mm, which creates a feeling of fluffiness. If you grind a few needles inhands, you will immediately feel the tart citrus aroma - a distinctive feature of Nordmann fir. Compared to other relatives, this species is growing very fast. It can reach a height of up to 50 meters and a crown diameter of 7-8 m.
Nordmann's fir has very unusual cones, large - up to 20 cm long, cylindrical in shape, richly covered with resin when mature. In addition, it is a long-liver, grows in nature for 500-800 years, easily tolerates frosts down to -25-30 degrees. Caucasian fir (Nordmann) is popular in Europe as a "Christmas tree". Seeds, cut down trees and already mature plants in pots are actively sold in the markets, in shops, via the Internet. The last option is the most humane, you can dress up a fir for the New Year and Christmas, and plant it in the garden in the spring.
Which place to choose on the site
Nordmann fir is a plant predominantly in partial shade, although it can withstand both shade and bright sun. Due to a well-developed and powerful root system, it is resistant to winds. Demanding on air purity, does not tolerate gas pollution in cities and industrial areas, this must be taken into account when choosing a place. Nordmann fir is unpretentious, but still does not like to be disturbed. Therefore, the location on the site must immediately be chosen permanent, so that later there will be no numerous transfers. In its natural habitat, the tree grows quickly, but, for example, Nordmann fir in the Moscow region will annually grow only 12-15 cm.
How to choose a plant
If you buy seedlings, it is best to do it in a store and choose those in individual containers. Young firs with a bare root system take root worse and there is a big risk that the plant will die, especially for specimens that are sold on the market. As an option - buy fir in the nursery, when it is dug up in front of your eyes. You should not take too small seedlings, it is best to give preference to medium specimens aged 4-5 years. Be sure to carefully inspect the plant for damage by pests or fungal diseases.
It is best to plant Nordmann fir, like other conifers, in early spring - in April - or in autumn, in September. The depth and width of the pit depends on the size of the seedling and its root system, but not less than 70 cm in depth and width. The Nordmann fir is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but still prefers loamy and light soils. For better survival, you can prepare the land for planting yourself. To do this, mix clay, humus, sand and peat in a ratio of 2:3:1:1. It is recommended to add mineral fertilizer. At the bottom of the pit, be sure to pour drainage with a layer of 20 cm (brick chips, coarse river sand, pebbles, sawdust). The distance between the trees in a group planting is desirable to be 3-5 meters, the plants will look good one by one, and the dwarf form is allowed even in the flower bed.
Air humidity and watering
Nordmann fir does not like dry air, so you need to take into account specific climaticconditions when choosing a given tree for your site. In too hot summers, you can spray the trees, but this should be done after sunset or early in the morning. The tree prefers moist soil, but without stagnant water, which is why good drainage is needed when planting. Usually, adult fir has enough natural natural moisture in the soil, so additional artificial watering is required only in case of a very dry summer (2-3 times per season). Top dressing should begin from the second or third year of growth. In spring, granules of special fertilizers for coniferous plants are applied to the mulched soil near the tree trunk or Kemira-universal is used.
But young specimens of Nordmann fir should be watered regularly at first, thereby maintaining the necessary soil moisture so that the plant takes root better. The near-stem circle near the tree must be weeded from weeds and preferably mulched with peat or sawdust.
Growing from seeds
This is the main breeding method. Some sources still talk about cuttings, but this is quite difficult and the success rate is very small. The appearance of the roots of the cutting will have to wait at least six months.
Nordmann fir seeds can be bought or collected from an adult tree, this must be done before the cones open. The best time for planting in the ground is autumn. Fresh seeds have a very high germination rate. You can start planting in the spring, but for this you need to stratify the seeds, and sow them at the end of March-April in shallow containers, ondepth 1.5-2 cm. The temperature for seedlings requires 18-25 degrees, germination occurs on average in 3-4 weeks.
Young seedlings need shading - this is an important condition for their successful growth. When the plants reach 15-20 cm, they can be seated in a permanent place. In conditions of severe frosts, seedlings should be covered with spruce branches or special material, as there is a threat of freezing to the level of snow cover.
Pests and diseases
Nordmann's fir is practically not susceptible to various kinds of diseases and pests, which is another big plus when growing it on the site. But with excessive moisture or choosing the wrong place where water stagnates, fungal diseases may appear, most often it is rust. At the first sign of damage, the tree must be treated with a solution of copper sulfate.
Of the pests, the most common are fir aphids and fir moths that infect shoots. In this case, there can be only one way out - treatment with a solution of special insecticides. It does not hurt to also do this for prevention in the spring.
If the garden area is small, then experts advise planting decorative forms - this is a weeping, gray-haired, upright, golden Nordmann fir (photo).
All of them differ in the color of the needles, as well as the shape of the crown and size. Nordmann's golden fir grows only 1 meter tall in ten years. Has unusual needlesgolden yellow. Widely used in the southern regions for rock gardens. Weeping fir resembles willow in shape, long shoots hang down, and is also small in size.
If the site requires a beautiful tree, shade-tolerant and fast-growing, then, undoubtedly, one of the best candidates will be Nordmann fir. Feedback from landscape designers about it is extremely positive, because thanks to its even pyramidal shape and dense dark green form, it has high decorative qualities with minimal maintenance.