Daurian birch (black birch) is a plant that is found mainly in the Far East, Mongolia, Japan, Korea, North China. This tree is an indicator of soil suitability for planting crops. Let's learn more about this unique plant.
More about this plant
Daurian birch is a plant listed in the Red Book and is under state protection in specialized reserves. This tree grows in the lower parts of the mountain slopes, mainly in the soil, characterized by moisture and friability. An example of such soil is admixture in forests with deciduous crops. Daurian birch is very often cultivated in botanical gardens of European countries and the Far East.
Dahurian birch is a tree about 25 meters high with a spreading openwork crown. A distinctive feature of this plant is the interesting color of the bark. Young trees have pinkish bark, closer to reddish. And the color of the old birch - from darkbrown to dark brown. The main part of the bark falls off, but a part remains hanging in patches, creating a feeling of curls. This effect is quite attractive, but only visible at close range. If you see a photo of a Dahurian birch from afar, you will not notice anything special on the trunk.
The leaves of this plant are oval, dark green in summer and yellow-brown in autumn. The flowering period of the tree begins almost immediately after the appearance of the leaves, the growing season is short.
Daurian birch (black) is very demanding on the soil, but there are no special claims to the purity of groundwater. It does not tolerate both pruning and transplanting, it starts to grow worse from soil compaction. It is perfect for beautiful landscaping of forest belts and city parks, as it harmonizes perfectly with group and clean plantings in illuminated areas. The first description of the Daurian birch was made in 1883.
Nuances of care
This tree thrives in a well-lit or slightly shaded area. If you want to artificially grow such a birch, remember that the distance between the shoots should be about 3-4 meters.
The soil for planting a tree should consist of leafy soil, sand and peat in a ratio of 2:1:2. It is advisable to pour sand drainage about 15 cm. Planting is best done in early spring, while the trees should not be older than 5–7 years. Older trees are planted in winter with a clod of frozen earth, because when planting in autumn it is largechance of a big dropout.
In early spring, you should take care of high-quality feeding of trees: 1 kg of mullein, 10 grams of urea, 15 grams of ammonium nitrate are bred in a bucket of water. If the plant is from 10 to 20 years old, then 30 liters of solution is enough, and if more, then the amount of solution should be increased to 50 liters.
Be sure to water the plant at the time of planting and for a week afterwards.
Disease protection and cultivation
The soil for planting birch is loosened at a depth of 3 centimeters while harvesting weeds. Circles are mulched near the trunk with peat or peat compost, and sprinkled with wood shavings, the thickness of which is about 15 cm. Dry branches are pruned in spring.
One of the birch pests are pipe beetles. They damage young leaves and shoots. And a large colony can quickly destroy a tree. If the plant is affected by this beetle, then it is better to burn the leaves, and dig up the near-stem circles.
Pests such as the nun silkworm and the Corydalis bucephalus gnaw at the leaves of the Daurian birch down to the veins. It is advisable to shake off the caterpillars, and treat the tree with insecticides. If the May beetle larva has damaged the roots of a birch, then you need to dig up the trunk circle and check the ground for parasites.
It should be remembered that birch is prone to parasitic fungi, such as tinder. If you don't want the tree to rust, spray the trunk with copper oxychloride.
Dahurian birch is propagated by sowing seeds, which are collected during the maturation of earrings. Almost universal germination drops rapidly, so it is better to sow immediately or in late autumn. Dried seeds are stored in an airtight container until a suitable seedling period. With such storage, 100% germination is maintained for two years.
Distinguishes Daurian birch speed and good survival, shoots grow into strong specimens. If the seeds are freshly harvested, then they are sensitive to light: in a dark room they germinate at a temperature of +15 … +32 ° C. At a temperature of 15 ° and below, sprouts are produced only with proper lighting. Before sowing, the seeds must be stratified at a temperature of 1 to 10 ° for 2-3 months. You can also treat them with gibberellic acid at a concentration of 100 mg / l during the day. This will protect the seeds from diseases and pests.
These trees can be classified as park crops and highly desirable plants in alley plantings and gardens, but it is worth remembering that they feel good only on the lawn. Their openwork crown, bright color of the bark, spring light green foliage and autumn golden yellow will fit perfectly into the park area. They go well with oaks, maples, beech, willows, bird cherry, mountain ash and even conifers. When planted with unsuitable tree species, this type of birch acts as a "lasher", because of this, some suffer.varieties of coniferous crops.