Sandpaper is often used for finishing and roughing surfaces. Types of material have separate technical characteristics, different grain sizes, types of abrasive used.
What is the material?
An elastic abrasive paper or fabric-based, the working surface of which is covered with a granular powder layer, is sandpaper. Types of this material are used in the processing of wood, metal, plastic, glass, and other common materials.
According to documented information, sandpaper was first used by Chinese craftsmen in the 13th century. Sandpaper was produced by fixing a mixture of sand, crushed plant seeds and shells with starch glue on a rough leather base. Quite often, small particles of broken glass were used as an abrasive for rough processing.
The first serial production of sandpaper came true in 1833, when a patent for the production of a newproducts was issued to the American entrepreneur Isaac Fisher from the town of Springfield (Vermont).
In parallel with the development of technology, sandpaper was also improved. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, active developments have been carried out in Europe, during which the qualities of individual abrasive materials were investigated. Subsequently, the results of the work served as the basis for the invention of a moisture-resistant sandpaper. This type of sandpaper has made a small revolution in the automotive industry. In particular, it opened up the possibility for fast and thorough finishing of parts.
When processing surfaces with abrasive skins, some rules should be followed. In the course of work to correct defects, it is first rational to resort to the use of the coarsest skin. Coarse grit is suitable for roughing wood, removing old paintwork, rust layer.
Fine sandpaper is used at the stage of fine grinding, polishing of metal, painted surfaces. For stripping plastic, a sandpaper with a minimum grit is ideal.
Today, waterproof sandpaper is also available to craftsmen, the use of which avoids the occurrence of an abundance of dust during the work. Thanks to wet grinding, the surfaces to be machined acquire the smoothest, most attractive texture.
Among the defining characteristics of abrasiveskins highlight the following:
- Base material.
- Grain values.
- The nature of the production bases that are used as grains.
Sandpaper - types
Grinding skins are divided into separate varieties, primarily according to the base on which the abrasive is applied. The most common is paper-based products. This solution is especially cheap and worthy of wear resistance. Most products of this plan are water-repellent, and also open up the possibility of applying the smallest grains.
Fabric-based sandpaper has high wear resistance. Thanks to the use of specialized resins, it can be given moisture-resistant qualities. In addition, the fabric backing makes the material extremely elastic.
Considering the question of what kind of sandpaper is (types of material), it is impossible not to note the combined products. Such grinding skins are distinguished by the advantages characteristic of both of the above options. Hence the high price of such products. In terms of application, combined abrasives are able to withstand increased mechanical stress.
According to the grain size, the following sandpaper options are distinguished:
- Coarse-grained - used for basic, rough processing of materials, removal of contaminants, paint, corrosion effects. Sanding withusing abrasives of this category leaves rather deep, textured scratches on surfaces.
- Medium-grained - used when it is necessary to perform intermediate processing of materials. Sanding pliable surfaces with such paper, such as natural wood, allows you to level and smooth the planes.
- Fine-grained - is an ideal tool for preparing materials for processing with paints and varnishes. Such a skin will easily remove minor scratches and minor defects from surfaces.
Type of abrasive
The following bases are used as abrasives in the manufacture of sandpaper:
- Garnet is a naturally occurring material that is the best solution for finishing natural wood.
- Silicon carbide is the most high-strength abrasive. Skins coated with such grains are an indispensable tool for working on metal and plastic. Carbide abrasive is suitable for cleaning painted surfaces, grinding fiberglass.
- Ceramic - skins with such a coating are used at the stage of formation of the basic texture of wood, as well as when eliminating pronounced defects. In other words, such sanding paper is used when performing rough work. Most often, products of this plan can be found in the form of looped sanding belts, which are used for machine surface treatment.
- Aluminum oxide - especially differentfragile structure. When creating friction with surfaces, the abrasive forms new sharp edges. Therefore, the skins of this plan have a truly impressive service life. Such sandpaper is used mainly in carpentry and woodworking industry.
In addition to grit size, the following additional information may appear on the sandpaper package:
- Purpose - for processing metal surfaces or more pliable materials of low hardness.
- Web parameters - length and width.
- The composition of the abrasive and its fraction.
- The nature of the adhesive used to fix the abrasive (synthetics, amber varnish, formaldehyde resin, combination bond).
- The level of wear resistance of the product.
Sandpaper - price
How much does an abrasive skin cost in the domestic market? The price of fine-grained paper-based products starts at about 30 rubles per linear meter. The cost of a more durable emery cloth on a fabric substrate ranges from 150-200 rubles per linear meter and varies depending on the fraction and type of abrasive used.
Compared to other grinding media, in particular metal brushes, grinding wheels, sandpaper is a really cheap material that is accessible to the widest consumer audience. Todaythe abrasive skin is issued in the form of strips, circles, sheets, tapes. All this contributes to its operation in various fields of activity, the performance of work manually and using power tools.