Cabbage yield per 1 ha. Factors affecting the yield of cabbage

Cabbage yield per 1 ha. Factors affecting the yield of cabbage
Cabbage yield per 1 ha. Factors affecting the yield of cabbage
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Cabbage, which is considered to be the birthplace of the Mediterranean regions of North Africa and Western Europe, began to be grown and eaten as early as the 1st century BC. BC e. She migrated to Russia from the regions of Transbaikalia and the Caucasus. The cold-resistant and moisture-loving vegetable perfectly suited the climatic conditions of our country. In Russia, cabbage has always been considered the main vegetable, and even now it has an exceptional food value. Dishes from it are found in every national cuisine - these are soups, casseroles, cabbage rolls, meatballs, rolls, hodgepodges, stews and delicious stuffed pies. What should be the yield of cabbage from 1 hectare to have enough for everything?

A little about cabbage

Cabbage belongs to the genus of the cruciferous (cabbage) family. It has about 100 different species, which include swede, rapeseed, turnip, mustard, turnip. Greco-Roman settlers brought cabbage to Russia in the 9th century, and Russians quickly liked it.to a person. Already by the XII century, this culture was cultivated throughout our country. This vegetable has become one of the staple foods after the potato. There are more than 100 types of cabbage - kohlrabi, savoy, Beijing, fodder, cauliflower, but white cabbage is the most widespread.

Cabbage harvest

It has excellent taste qualities, contains many useful substances: protein, rare vitamins U and K, is a source of B and C vitamins that last until spring, contains a lot of fiber and all the necessary minerals. This vegetable occupies more than 30% of all areas allocated for vegetable crops, and Russia can rightly be considered the second homeland of cabbage.

Preparing cabbage seeds for planting

The future harvest of white cabbage depends on proper planting, and the quality of seedlings depends on seed preparation. According to the recommendations of experts, before boarding, you must:

  • Select all low-quality seeds from the package.
  • Disinfect. To do this, take two enameled pots: large and small. In the first, heat the water to 55, and in the second - to 45 degrees. In a small saucepan, lower the seeds in a canvas, put it in a large one, and keep a quarter of an hour. Then take out the white cabbage seeds and put them in cold water for a minute.
  • If the soil is infected with clubroot, then for disinfection you need to: dissolve one teaspoon of nitrophoska in a liter of water and soak the seeds in the prepared solution for 10 hours, then rinse under running water.
  • For hardeningput the planting material in the refrigerator for a day.

After preparation, the seeds are dried and planted in open ground or a greenhouse for growing seedlings.

Seedless way to grow cabbage

This method of growing cabbage is used in the Far East and the Central Black Earth zone. The soil is prepared in advance, plowed up, freed from weeds, and fertilized well. Seeds are sown directly into the ground, germinating, they form a strong root system that increases their resistance to lack of moisture. For the seedless technology of growing cabbage, planting material is sown in early spring in soil soaked with moisture after winter. In industrial cultivation, seeds are mixed with superphosphate granules for planting. This makes sowing uniform and at the same time has a beneficial effect on the growth of the root system. In backyard plots, seeds are planted by hand:

  • drop 5-6 pieces into each hole;
  • between rows make a distance of 60 cm;
  • planting depth 2-4 cm;
  • from above the soil is mulched with sawdust or humus;
  • after the appearance of the second and third true leaves, two plants are left in the hole;
  • with repeated thinning - one;
  • removed shoots are planted in places where the seeds did not sprout.
cabbage seedling

For growth and development, seedlings of cabbage are watered daily, and on hot days twice a day. To increase the yield of white cabbage, two top dressings are carried out: during the growth of leaves and the formation of heads. The first top dressing is done with nitrogenfertilizer two weeks after thinning. The second - slurry with the addition of ash. Weeding and loosening the soil is carried out as needed.

Growing cabbage through seedlings

To grow cabbage in seedlings, you must do:

  • tillage and fertilization;
  • growing seedlings;
  • planting finished plants in open ground;
  • seedling care - loosening the soil, hilling plants, watering, fertilizing, systematic weeding, disease and pest control;
  • harvesting;
  • bookmark cabbage for storage.

Features of growing cabbage: soil preparation and fertilization

Preparation of the soil for cabbage begins in the fall. It is dug up to a depth of 20 cm and left uncovered to eliminate weeds, loosen the soil, and increase the supply of nutrients and moisture. In the spring, the site is dug up again, and just before planting the seedlings, cultivation is done with a depth of 15 cm. The future yield of cabbage depends on the depth of plowing and the time it is carried out. The more the earth is loosened and the earlier it is processed, the better the seedlings will take root, the more moisture will remain. For the normal development of cabbage, phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium fertilizers are necessary. It is based on organic matter and additionally, depending on the type of soil, mineral complexes are added. It should be noted that cabbage does not like acidic soils, so lime is added to them every 3-4 years to significantly increase the yield of cabbage from 1 hectare.

Growing seedlings

Prepared in advanceseeds are planted in boxes with earth. To do this, grooves are made 1 cm deep at a distance of 3 cm from each other, seeds are sown after 1–2 cm and sprinkled with earth. The container is placed in a bright warm place until shoots appear. After germination, the temperature is lowered to 6–10 degrees for a week, and then maintained at room level. Two weeks later, with the appearance of the first leaves, a pick is carried out. Before this, the sprouts are watered abundantly so as not to damage the roots and transplanted into cassettes or a separate container. In this form, it grows until 5–7 full leaves appear, after which it is planted in open ground.

Planting seedlings

Cabbage is a vegetable that is planted as the very first crop in a crop rotation. Every year it should be located on a different site than in the previous season. They will return to the same area again after 3-4 years. Good predecessors for cabbage are legumes, onions, tomatoes, carrots, tomatoes.

planting cabbage

Cabbage should not be planted after radishes, swedes and turnips, which are affected by the same pests and diseases as cabbages. Seedlings are planted in open ground in May, depending on weather conditions, in cloudy weather or in the evening. To do this:

  • Only he althy and strong plants are selected - this will be one of the positive factors affecting the yield of cabbage.
  • Mark the plot - the distance between plants and rows should be about 60 cm.
  • They make holes in which they put a scoop of humus, a tablespoon of ash and a teaspoon of superphosphate,everyone stirs.
  • The wells are watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
  • Seedlings are planted and watered abundantly.

Care after landing

Cabbage seedlings planted in open ground require constant care. To do this, you need to produce:

Water. Cabbage is a vegetable that responds well to moisture. It is watered in the first half of summer after 2-4 days, then this procedure is reduced to once a week

Watering cabbage
  • Feeding. Periodic fertilization contributes to the restoration of nutrients in the soil. The first feeding is carried out three weeks after disembarkation, the second - two weeks after the first, and the third - a month after the first. Mineral and organic fertilizers are used for top dressing. Chicken manure and slurry diluted with water work well.
  • Pests. For pest control use folk remedies; tobacco dust, wood ash, tomato tops, onion peel. It is better not to use ready-made chemicals so as not to harm.

The yield of cabbage from 1 ha largely depends on proper care, under favorable conditions you can harvest up to 65 tons.

Pest control

Often, when growing cabbage, you have to fight pests. And if the conditions of keeping the plant are violated, then insects attack it all season. To prevent disease and insect invasion, you need:

  • do not thicken plantings;
  • observe crop rotation;
  • to prepare the soil from autumn;
  • regularly conductfeeding;
  • water in time;
  • get rid of weeds and hill up.
Pest infested cabbage

When pests appear, immediately start fighting them:

  • Cabbage fly - appears at the end of May. The larvae damage the root neck of the plant, the lower leaves wither. For destruction, use a solution of iodine with water: 15 drops per bucket. For prevention, pollination with a mixture of tobacco dust, ash and slaked lime is used.
  • Slugs attack cabbages in rainy weather. To control pests, the aisles are mulched with fresh nettles and sprinkled with a mixture of slaked lime and ground red pepper.
  • Cruciferous fleas - feed on cabbage leaves and cause great damage to seedlings. For prevention, an earlier planting of seedlings, abundant watering and fertilizing with slurry is recommended. When insects appear, plants are dusted with tobacco dust and wood ash, and an infusion of fresh dandelions, potato tops or wormwood is also used for spraying. Take 500 g of chopped grass in a bucket of water, insist, add 50 g of grated soap.

During the mass summer of insects, covering material is pulled over cabbage plantings. It reliably protects against pests.

The best varieties of cabbage for pickling and storage

Of the variety of varieties of white cabbage for storage for the winter and pickling, the following are considered the best:

  • Gift - used for pickling and pickling, fresh stored for up to five months. The color of the heads is from white to green inside,weight 2–5 kg.
  • Slava-1305 - recognized as a classic variety for pickling, has an average ripening period, heads of cabbage weighing up to 4 kg.
  • Belorusskaya is one of the popular pickling varieties, the mass of a head is about 3 kg, which is stored for a long time.
  • Dobrovodsky is a universal variety. It has excellent keeping quality, retaining its properties until spring and is good in pickled form.
  • Menza is a productive hybrid. The weight of a head of cabbage reaches an average of 9 kg, it can lie until spring, after which it is used for pickling.
  • Kharkov winter - for s alting is considered one of the best varieties. It has a high yield, good taste, lies up to six months. Dense heads of cabbage have increased frost resistance. The variety tolerates heat and drought well.
  • Crumont - not suitable for s alting, it lies well all winter and is recommended for fresh consumption. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases. The mass of a head of cabbage reaches 2 kg. Ripening period - late, friendly crop formation, heads of cabbage are resistant to cracking.
  • Amager 611 - has an amazing keeping quality and lasts until the next harvest. Heads are dense with a bitter taste in autumn, which disappears in winter, weight is from 2.5 to 4 kg. The cabbage variety has increased cold resistance, so it is planted in the ground at an early date.
shredding cabbage

From this list, gardeners can choose the best varieties of cabbage for pickling and storage for their summer cottage.

Feeding cabbage

Feeding crops is a very important undertaking. How often to dotop dressing? It depends on the fertility of the soil. In the season they are held from 2 to 4 times:

  • The first is carried out 2-3 weeks after transplanting. When forming a bush, the plant needs nitrogen fertilizer. Take one part of chicken manure or rotted manure and dilute with 20 or 15 parts of water. Half a liter of solution is poured under the plant. With well-fertilized soil and the addition of humus during planting, top dressing is not carried out.
  • Second - thirty days after the first. Prepare the same solution as for the first feeding and add a complex of mineral fertilizers.
  • Third - done when forming a head of cabbage. Nettle infusion is being prepared. Chopped grass is poured with water, insisted for five days, diluted in equal parts and watered.
  • Fourth - use mineral fertilizers and carry out for late-ripening varieties.

How to increase the yield of cabbage in the open field?

Almost every summer resident grows cabbage on his plot, but not everyone manages to harvest a rich harvest. Experts advise taking into account the following factors to increase yields:

  • Choice of variety - mid-early and mid-season varieties are used for harvesting for the winter. Mass of heads of cabbage from 2 kg. Some varieties can crack, so they should not be overexposed in the garden.
  • The quality of seedlings is better to grow on your own and in the right time.
  • Seedling age - approximately 60 days by the time of planting.
  • Purity from diseases - a plant infected with clubroot and blackleg will grow, but will not produce a crop.
  • Illumination -cabbage does not tolerate shading. Close or, conversely, discharged planting leads to a decrease in yield
  • Soil structure - moderate density, good breathability.
  • Acidity - liming is needed, acidic soil is the enemy for cabbage.
  • Fertilization - requires potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Feed several times a season.
  • Irrigation - mandatory soil moisture, in the summer months - enhanced watering.
  • Protection from pests - the destruction of harmful insects will significantly increase the yield.
  • Hilling up a vegetable - promotes the emergence of new roots.
cabbage field

Considering all the above factors, you can get a record yield of cabbage from 1 hectare, amounting to 130 tons.

Instead of a conclusion

White cabbage is a cold-resistant, moisture- and light-loving plant demanding on soil fertility. Depending on the variety and growing conditions, the mass of a head of cabbage sometimes reaches up to 15 kg. The most optimal temperature for growing 13-18 degrees Celsius. Mature plants tolerate slight frosts, but high temperatures depress them. To obtain a generous harvest, fertilizing is necessarily carried out, consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Although the price of cabbage in the distribution network is low (in Russia, on average, it is 19 rubles per kilogram), but many grow it on their own in household plots and summer cottages. It is used for pickling or stored for storage and consumed fresh in winter. After all, cabbage is a real source of vitamins andminerals that are stored in it until the next harvest.

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