Strawberries are on store shelves all year round these days. But, of course, the most delicious is the one grown in our own garden. Often, berry lovers think about the strawberry business. And this is where a lot of questions come up. One of them: how many strawberries can be harvested from 1 hundred square meters? It and many other questions will be answered in the article.
First of all, it is worth deciding how exactly to cultivate the berry: in open ground or in a greenhouse.
The main disadvantage of growing outdoors is that precious crops will be lost due to adverse weather conditions.
Strawberries under a film cover are reliably protected from all negative factors, which allows you to increase the yield by 25% compared to outdoor cultivation.
Besides, greenhouse strawberries are more transportable and keep longer. So it is possiblegrow berries for several years. Thus, if it is a question of obtaining a high yield, a greenhouse should be preferred.
Traditionally, strawberries are grown in greenhouses. In such premises, it is possible to achieve a greenhouse effect, which favorably affects the growth of plants and the ripening of fruits. Especially popular is the Dutch growing technology, which involves planting seedlings in plastic bags. A similar method is ideal for a greenhouse. How many strawberries can be harvested from 1 hundred square meters in this case? Experts call the figure 225-250 kg, it is valid for novice farmers.
There are many technologies for growing strawberries in a greenhouse, and you can choose the one that suits you. The least labor-intensive, but at the same time expensive, is the use of hydroponics. It is much more economical to grow in plastic bags with soil. Moreover, favorable conditions for growth and fruiting can be created in winter. All technologies for year-round strawberry cultivation are built on this feature.
Benefits of growing strawberries as a business:
- In a heated room, the harvest can be harvested all year round. At the same time, the fruiting and quality of berries do not depend on weather conditions. Outdoor yields are reduced by 25%.
- The initial business costs pay off quickly enough - in a season.
- The high price of berries in winter allows you to make good profits.
- In greenhouse conditions, caring for plantings is mucheasier than in open ground.
- Such a business is highly profitable - 100%.
Of course there are disadvantages:
- Major expenses at the very beginning of the business.
- The need to pay salaries to workers. You will not be able to cope with all the troubles on your own.
- Organization of heating. Without this important nuance, it is impossible to grow strawberries year-round.
There are several types of greenhouses. They differ in design, materials and heating system. When choosing a material, climate, budget, cultivation method are taken into account.
When creating a greenhouse, they are guided by the following plan:
- Building a building.
- Make heating.
- Purchase garden tools.
- Arrange watering system.
- Fill the greenhouse with soil.
- Purchase fertilizers and preparations to protect plantings from parasites and diseases.
- Buy planting material.
When choosing a material, it should be understood that it must have sufficient strength, provide good thermal insulation, and be suitable for weather conditions.
Among the variety of materials, three main ones should be distinguished:
- Film. The most economical, but also less reliable option. The film is not suitable for winter. It quickly begins to tear, becomes cloudy and is not able to retain heat well. For a year-round strawberry business, this is the worst option. Film is only suitable forregions with warm and little snow winters.
- Glass. This material is more reliable than film. When erecting a glass greenhouse, they first build a foundation. Glasses are placed in frames. Glass is a fragile material, it can be destroyed by hail, break under the weight of snow, and crack with temperature changes. However, it is easier to maintain the desired microclimate in glass greenhouses than in plastic ones.
- Polycarbonate. It is cheaper than glass, reliable, able to withstand heavy loads, and is not afraid of gusty winds. The greenhouse has the greatest stability if the polycarbonate is fixed on a metal frame, securely dug into the ground. Carbonate is strong, light and elastic, it is easy to wash. For such greenhouses there is no need for a foundation. They can last 10-20 years.
Which containers do you prefer?
To grow strawberries in a greenhouse, you will need containers filled with nutrient soil, where the plants will be planted. For this purpose, you can take:
There should be holes at the bottom of the containers so that water can come out. Metal containers are not recommended - this material is too cold and not suitable for growing berries at all.
Capacities are installed on racks with strong slats. Wooden shelves can be deformed under the influence of moisture, the wood must be pre-coated with waterproof varnish.
Heating, watering and lighting
In the greenhouse you need to maintain:
More often these daysIn general, farmers prefer electricity heating. The temperature is controlled automatically. If strawberries grow on the ground, the most intensive heating mode is needed. If the plants are in containers, the temperature may be lower.
Humidity is maintained by regular watering. It is very convenient, and therefore drip irrigation is popular. So plants can be provided with the right amount of moisture. To control the parameter, use a hygrograph or psychrometer.
Lighting is necessary to lengthen daylight hours in the greenhouse. Usually fluorescent lamps are installed.
In modern greenhouses, automation controls the parameters of the environment. Special sensors monitor temperature, humidity and lighting. Of course, such systems are expensive, so it makes sense to use modest systems at the beginning of a business.
Choosing the material and method of heating the greenhouse, take into account the climate of the region. In the southern regions, thermos greenhouses can be installed, which are heated by solar heat and ventilated. In Siberia and similar cold regions, infrared heating and pumps are often used, thanks to which you can keep warm in the most severe winters. In temperate climates, biofuels are suitable for heating, as they release heat when they decompose.
In addition to all of the above, when creating a greenhouse you will also need:
- drip irrigation system;
- various appliances for heating: boilers, potbelly stoves, etc.;
- hygrometers and thermometers;
Which varieties are suitable?
When choosing strawberries for planting and calculating how many strawberries can be harvested from 1 weave, you should pay attention to varieties with the following qualities:
- excellent appearance and excellent taste of fruits;
- high transportability;
- high fertility;
- neutral daylight grade.
For example, varieties have similar characteristics:
- Gigantella. Variety from Holland with large berries, the mass of one can reach 100 grams. Fruits are dense, fragrant, tasty. During the season, up to 3 kg of berries can be harvested from a bush.
- Albion. The variety was bred in 2006 in the USA, bears fruit many times, gives up to 2 kg of berries from a bush per season. Fruits weigh 40-60 grams.
- Crown. Old variety from Holland, bred in 1972. Berries weigh 15-30 grams, have medium density and good taste.
How many strawberries can be collected from 1 weave? Unfortunately, this question cannot be answered precisely. Much will depend on planting care.
When purchasing planting material, pay attention to quality. The shape of the leaves must be perfect, without defects: spots, dots and wrinkles. Each seedling should have at least three leaves.
The root neck should be strong, without rot and stains, the roots - from 7 cm long, he althy.
Soil for seedlings
Soil forgrowing berries begin to prepare a year before planting. Soil is best suited after cereals. Compost is added to it, peat, perlite are added - for loosening. If the soil is acidic, lime is mixed in - 50 grams per hundred square meters.
Before planting seedlings, the soil is fertilized. First, they moisturize, and then they add potassium chloride and superphosphate - 15 and 30 grams per 1 sq. meter respectively.
After that, the soil is disinfected with chemicals or exposure to high temperatures.
Modern farmers plant strawberries in pots, soil or bags. In this case, the yield will be different. Beginners usually collect 30-40 kg from each square meter, experienced gardeners manage to get 60 kg of berries from 1 square meter. meters. Thus, the yield of strawberries from 1 weave can reach 600 kg.
Growing in soil
This is the most common way. Seedlings are planted in pre-prepared beds.
- minimum cost.
The disadvantage is one level of landings.
Seedlings are staggered at a distance of 30-40 cm, between stripes - up to a meter. The beds are covered with mulch or spunbond.
In this case, containers with plantings are placed in several tiers to get the maximum number of fruits.
Pot diameter - 20 cm, the substrate consists of 2 parts of peat, 1.5 parts of sawdust, 1 part of perlite. Tanks can be hung or placedon racks.
In plastic bags
This variant is similar to the potted variant, but has a lower cost. Multiple shrubs can be grown in each package.
The substrate is poured into large bags with a diameter of 16 cm and a length of 210 cm, they are placed on racks or fixed. Expanded clay is placed at the bottom, then filled with peat-perlite soil. The ingredients are taken in equal parts. In the bags, cuts are made 8 cm at a distance of 30 cm from each other, and seedlings are planted in them.
This is the most popular technology for growing berries. In this case, strawberries are planted on a black covering material. Holes are made in the black film for seedlings. The color of the material allows plantings to receive more sunlight, thereby accelerating fruit ripening and increasing yields.
Seedlings are constantly updated - this is a necessary condition for this method of cultivating a crop.
The most high-yielding varieties are suitable for Dutch technology, for example, Tristar, Sonata.
The difficulty lies in the fact that it is necessary to create a plantation for growing seedlings.
So, directly in the process of planting care, what should be monitored?
- Lighting. The length of the daylight hours should be 10-14 hours, the lamps are switched on from 8 to 11 and from 17 to 20 hours.
- Temperature. During the planting of seedlings - 10 ° C, then it is raised gradually to 20 ° C. When flowers bloom - 24 ° С.
- Ventilation. If it runs automatically, great. Otherwise, the greenhouse is ventilated during the day.
- Humidity. Its level at the very beginning is 85%, after the seedlings take root - 75%, during fruiting - 70%. Plantings are watered as needed.
- Feeding. Potassium and nitrogen compounds are suitable for strawberries. For example, potassium chloride diluted in water is 10 grams per 10 liters. Ammonium nitrate - 80 g per 10 liters of water. Organic top dressings are also used - slurry (1:5), chicken manure (1:10). Fertilize strawberries every two weeks. It is important not to overdo it with fertilizers, so as not to burn the plants. So, we figured out how to water strawberries for a high yield.
If all the recommendations in the article are followed, the farmer will be able to get an excellent strawberry harvest.