Elegant twisted knots on the railing of iron stairs, as well as openwork metal fences, attract everyone's attention. At the same time, not everyone has an idea that such devices and objects are made by cold forging.
If you wish, you can easily learn how to embody such beauty in metal. To do this, it is enough to have specialized machines available and have minimal skills in working with the material.
Features of cold forging
Mechanical bending of a metal rod with the help of specialized machines, as a result of which it is given a pre-conceived shape, is called cold forging. Such manipulations can be carried out on machines both manually using levers, and thanks to the functioning of electric motors. Among other things, with the help of cold forging, pipes of small diameter can be bent, twisted fences can be made, as well as residential buildings, decorations of arbors, lanterns, metal benches, lattices, gates, as well as balconies can be made,stairs and even furniture.
You can start your own production, just by mastering the simple method of cold forging. At the initial stage, you will need to purchase special equipment or make tools for cold forging with your own hands.
Equipment and tools
In order to make a forged product with your own hands, you need to have the following tools available:
Of all the devices listed above, the most important is the bender, since it is thanks to him that the change in the shape of the metal is carried out. Its main function is to bend the part at a certain angle. The snail is necessary for twisting the part in a spiral. A flashlight is used to bend parts, and a wave is designed to make wave-like curved elements.
All tools used for forging products are very easy to use and anyone can easily understand their operation.
Advantages of cold forging machines
In order for the metal to take the required shape under mechanical action, the cold forging method is used. Soft material is best suited for such purposes. The cold forging method is generally preferred when it is required to create a large number of identical elements.
Another indisputable advantage of this method of influencing the metal is that it does not requirehaving the highest skill. If we compare cold forging with hot forging, then it has the following undeniable advantages:
- fast reproducibility;
- low cost;
- high production speed;
- coating strength;
- lack of heating elements.
Despite the fact that cold forged products have many advantages, they also have certain disadvantages. The main ones are the simplicity of forms and the need to use bulky and diverse equipment.
Purpose and types of machines
The main purpose of any machine is to facilitate the manual labor of a person. In order to carry out cold forging, various equipment can be used. In this case, the physical efforts of the master are significantly reduced, and the following actions are performed:
- bend the profile at the required angle;
- longitudinal twisting of blanks;
- curls or spirals are made.
When using cold forging tools, specific parts are obtained that allow them to be arranged in a certain combination and create an artistic canvas. All machines designed for this method of metal processing are divided into two categories: specialized and universal.
Can I make a loom with my own hands?
You can buy a cold forging tool only in a specialized store or place an order on the Internet. In suchcase, the entire acquisition process directly depends on the solvency of the buyer. If there is no free finance or there is no desire to spend a lot of money, then in this case you can easily make a machine with your own hands.
You can do without a machine, only in this case you will need to make every effort to achieve the desired result. You can build a device for cold forging in two versions:
As for the first, in this case we are talking about a vise. The universal model is supplemented with certain elements (such as a basket or a lantern).
Design of machine tools
Without exception, cold forging fixtures have certain features and parameters. In order to start doing this not only exciting, but also profitable business, you need to have an idea of \u200b\u200bwhat each machine is used for. In the work of the master, the following types of devices are used:
- Bending machines. Serve to change the size of bends and waves. It is possible to bend on such a machine rods with a diameter of up to 16 millimeters.
- Twister is a unit equipped with a specialized template, directly against which the processed metal is pressed. At the same time, the pressure on him should be very large, since the efficiency of work directly depends on this.
- The base with spacers is designed to perform patterns of absolutely any variation. Similar mechanismshave a very simple design.
How to assemble a machine with your own hands?
Before assembling a cold forging fixture with your own hands, you need to make sure that its base is strong enough. Only in this case, the result will meet expectations. As a support, channels or I-beams can be used, which are pre-welded together. It is also recommended that paws from a similar profile be attached to the support, and only after that you can start manufacturing the remaining units.
If you have a desire to make a machine yourself, then in this case the "Snail" will be one of the most optimal designs. In order to do everything right, you first need to have an idea about the features of the machine. If the master understands the essence of the process, then in this case the design will not cause any difficulties. With the help of a drawing, do-it-yourself cold forging fixtures are relatively easy to make. The most important thing is to follow all the recommendations and carefully follow all the steps.
First of all, you need to take care of the presence of a solid frame. It is not recommended to make it from wooden beams, as it will not be able to withstand prolonged loads. The best option is to use a thick-walled pipe, metal corners or channels.
From a metal plate it is necessary to cut out two countertops in the form of a circle. It is this element of the device forcold forging of metal will take on the bulk of the load, so in no case can you save on its quality.
It is also worth taking care of the availability of other necessary parts, which include the lever and shaft. It is possible to make a shaft for a home-made device for cold forging from a thick-walled pipe of the required diameter. A lever is attached directly to it with the help of a ring, which rotates around it. Additionally, it is required to install a roller for bending rods on the lever.
Once all the necessary elements are ready, you can proceed directly to the assembly of the machine. All actions are performed in the following sequence:
- First, the frame is installed in such a way that it has unhindered access from all sides;
- further the legs of the machine are concreted or fixed;
- then the main countertop is welded to the frame;
- the main shaft is installed and welded to the countertop;
- the element is reinforced with special triangles and a rotating lever is put on it.
- after that, the top tabletop is installed and welded to the main shaft;
- assembly is completed by mounting the snail segments on the countertop.
As soon as the assembly of the DIY cold forging fixture is completely completed, a trial bending is carried out. This operation is mandatory.
For uniaxial longitudinal twisting, you can dodevice for cold forging of torsion type. For the foundation in this case, it is necessary to prepare an I-beam or channel.
After that, an iron strip must be attached to it by welding, on which a vice for clamping will be directly installed. They are securely fastened with four bolts. The next step is to weld the corrugated plates onto the vise and install the guide rollers. A clamping unit is attached to the latter, which ensures the mobility of the workpiece.
Next, a special handle is made to turn the moving part of the clamp. After completion of all work and complete assembly of the machine, it must be checked for strength and performance. Only then is it finally fixed to the support frame.
In order for each product to be of high quality, the machines and fixtures for cold forging in the workshop must be of various types. To form a corner, you need a "Gnutik". It is assembled from a special steel plate, on which a lever and two support shafts are fixed. Making such a device for cold forging metal with your own hands is quite simple.
If it was decided to engage in the molding of products, then you should definitely take care of the availability of a machine called "Gnutik". It's pretty easy to make. It is enough to clearly follow the drawing of the cold forging fixture. It is also important to use tool steel.
According to the photo,device for cold forging "Wave", consists of a pair of steel disks fixed on the worktop with an axis of rotation.
It is controlled by changing the distance between the disks. In the process of processing the bar, a pattern is formed, then it is removed and the process is carried out on the other side.
To form the tips of the rods, you must have a press available. To make such a device for cold forging metal with your own hands, you need to order gears, shafts, rolls and bearing bushings. All these items are purchased in the store.
The unit functions as a result of the rotation of the bar with weights and the retraction of the screw striker until it stops.
Despite the fact that many machines designed for cold forging are relatively simple to construct, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the information and all the nuances of manufacturing before creating them. This must be done so that no unforeseen circumstances arise during the assembly process that may adversely affect the quality of the product.
Before proceeding directly to the design of a cold forging machine, it is necessary to draw up a drawing in which all the features of the future fixture will be defined in great detail. After the circuit is ready, you need to purchase and prepare all the necessary details. Only after this canstart assembly.
Before manufacturing the machine, you need to prepare the bed so that all the parts for construction are at hand. All parameters must be accurately calculated so that the devices do not interfere with each other. For the manufacture of the bed, experts recommend using only durable material.
Features of connecting and painting parts
Once the cold forging fixtures are completed, you can proceed directly to the execution of artistic elements.
After the parts are made, they should be connected together. This can be done in several ways. Often the elements are connected by welding. After fixing and cooling, the resulting scale is ground off.
A much more beautiful method of connection is the use of clamps, which are stamped strips of metal. As soon as all the elements are fixed to each other, they are painted. For this, blacksmith enamels or acrylic-based metal paints are used.
Powder formulations can also be used, but the technology will be relatively expensive. Before applying enamel to the surface, the latter must be carefully prepared. Do not apply the composition on rust and dirt. The surface must be free from grease and corrosion. Only in this case, the enamel will last as long as possible on a homemade tool and protect it from moisture.
Before you start creatingartistic metal products, you need to take care of the availability of all tools and fixtures for cold forging. All work must be done carefully and carefully. Only in this case, you can achieve the perfect result.
In most cases, it is much more profitable to make cold forging machines with your own hands. These devices play an important role and are necessary for the production of quality products. This is due to the fact that not every element is possible to process with the help of manual devices, and the cost of most machines is quite high, even when it comes to the most elementary units.
Many craftsmen prefer to make their own machines that help to make quite original products. In this case, everything depends more and more on the experience of the master and his desire. If you decide to build a machine with your own hands, it is important to perform all actions in a certain sequence, then the result will exceed all expectations.