Have you ever heard of Japanese irises? In its homeland, the “samurai flower” is considered an unpretentious and hardy plant, as a result of which it received such an unusual name.
Feature of Japanese irises
Japanese iris is not an aquatic crop, and therefore needs to be watered only during the flowering period. The rest of the time, this culture calmly tolerates drought. This makes the plant the best "inhabitant" of summer cottages. However, for all its unpretentiousness, it is still worth understanding the nuances of planting and maintenance if you want to grow such a plant and achieve its flowering.
Appearance of the plant
Japanese iris is of interest primarily because of the large flowers, the diameter of which reaches 14-25 centimeters. It consists of three outer lobes and a perianth, as well as small inner lobes. The leaves of the plant can reach sizes from 25 to 60 centimeters. Their color varies from yellow-green to dark green.
Irises (photo is given in the article) in their natural environment grow in swampy meadows and on the edges of forests in China, Myanmar and Japan. For a very long time, due to its eastern origin, the plant was practicallyunknown in other countries. And now, thanks to the efforts of botanists from Russia and the USA, a whole collection of Japanese irises has been created, which has about a thousand varieties. In the arsenal there are varieties with varying degrees of frost resistance, different flowering times, multi-colored flowers of various shades. The varieties bred in the USA and Japan are less frost-resistant, and therefore they can be grown only in warm regions. In temperate climates, heat-loving varieties either do not bloom or freeze.
In their homeland, they try to plant Japanese iris in such a way that the stunning beauty of huge flowers can be admired from a certain height: in the lowlands and in old rice fields. Since the plant is quite moisture-loving, albeit drought-resistant, it is much easier to keep the soil moist with this method of planting. Very often in the photographs you can see how the irises are right in the water. However, this does not mean at all that the plant can be grown in this way. Japanese iris requires the greatest amount of moisture during budding and flowering. Only during these periods, to improve the appearance of the plants, they are poured with water. Sometimes, out of ignorance, amateur gardeners try to repeat such actions, which ultimately lead to decay of rhizomes, which are contraindicated in excessive moisture.
Which pick up location?
If you want to plant Japanese iris on your plot, then first of all you need to choose the right place. The area should be well lit. The plant is also tolerant of light partial shade. Under the trees and in the full shade of the irisesgrow very poorly and do not bloom at all. It is worth paying attention to the composition of the soil. For the plant, light loam is preferable, which has a slightly acidic reaction. Before planting, you can moderately fertilize the soil with compost. Irises categorically do not tolerate an excess of calcium, so it is not recommended to plant them in the ground into which lime was applied.
If the water is hard on your site, then it is better to use softer rainwater for irrigation. A small hole in the ground can be made around the plant to retain moisture during rains. But at the same time, after the end of flowering, it is necessary to provide for the removal of excess water, since during this period its excess is harmful to the plant.
Irises (photos are given in the article) are not recommended to be transplanted more often than once every five to seven years. Plants look great in separate group compositions. But on the other hand, they can also be placed surrounded by bathing suits, primroses, gypsophila and derebennikov.
If you plan to plant Japanese iris on your plot, then you should first choose the right variety that is most adapted to growing in your area. Now there is a wide variety of varieties, among which you can choose the most acceptable option.
You can also transplant a plant in the spring (this is acceptable for central Russia), but it is preferable to do this after the end of the flowering period, for example, in the first week of autumn.
Landing is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Preparation of planting materials.
- Rhizomes withleaves are divided into parts.
- Pits are prepared at a distance of at least 35 centimeters from each other. If you are doing group plantings, then the distance can be slightly reduced.
- Planted plants are buried in the soil by three to five centimeters and sprinkled with soil. After that, the iris must be watered.
Using top dressings
Feed plants two or three times a year. In addition, it is worth remembering that fertilizers must be applied during the growing season. Connoisseurs recommend using complex fertilizers for this purpose, since they contain the right amount of all trace elements. Plants also respond well to mullein solution (10%). The Japanese iris has some peculiarity.
It does not grow horizontally, but simply rises up, forming a bump. Therefore, it makes sense to mulch and sprinkle the ground around the plant. Such care will give the opportunity to develop young roots. Very often you can observe yellowing of the foliage of irises. In this case, the plant needs to be watered and sprayed with iron chelate.
Preparing for wintering
Does Japanese iris need to be prepared for wintering? Planting and caring for a plant is not particularly difficult, as you can see. But, as for wintering, the iris must be prepared for the cold season. To do this, all the leaves are cut so that only 10-15 centimeters remain above the ground. Then the rhizomes are covered with nutritious soil mixture and covered with dry leaves on top. In suchshelter iris should hibernate. In the spring, it can only be opened when a steady warm weather sets in.
It makes sense to cover the most heat-loving varieties in autumn and spring with foil. The cover can protect the plant until it interferes with foliage growth. If you dream of seeing blooming iris on your site, then it is necessary for him to provide proper care and timely proper watering. Only in this case you will be able to achieve abundant flowering.
Diseases and pests
When planting a plant, drainage can be provided. This will help prevent stagnant water and acidification of the soil. Excessive moisture can lead to the development of rot, although in general Japanese irises are not predisposed to them.
Of the insects, only thrips can cause the greatest harm to plants. These pests can only be controlled with insecticides. After autumn pruning of plants, it is better to burn the foliage, thereby destroying the egg laying. Leaves should be cut after frost, as cutting too early can adversely affect flowering.
Irises can be propagated by dividing the rhizomes, which are perfectly regenerated. It is necessary to divide them in such a way that several leaves are present on each part. In this case, the foliage is cut off (their height should be no more than 10 centimeters). The divided parts should dry out for a couple of days, or you can sprinkle the slices with charcoal.
This care will prevent rotting of the root system. Afterafter the roots are dried and processed, they can be planted in the soil. The planted plant must be well watered. After shrinkage of the soil, the upper part of the rhizomes may become bare. Therefore, you will have to add soil.
If desired, irises can be propagated even by seeds. To collect them, you need to leave a few inflorescences after flowering, in which the boxes will ripen. In autumn, ready-made seeds can be extracted from them, which are later sown in pots. For planting, you need a sandy substrate. Pots can be put all winter in an unheated greenhouse. Seeds will sprout only with the advent of spring, when it gets warm. Seedlings should remain in the greenhouse until they get stronger, only after that they can be transplanted into open ground.
The main feature of a plant is the structure of its flower. The lower part of the perianth acts as a landing site for insects. Under their weight, the road to the anthers opens. Insects cannot pollinate the plant with collected pollen because the stigma does not mature until the next day. But at the same time, another flower, in which the pollen crumbled and the stigma opened, is perfectly pollinated by the bumblebee. If the grower wants to produce artificial pollination, then he needs to remove the anthers from the flower (mother plant). This is done on the first day of flowering to prevent unwanted pollination. On the second day, you need to take pollen from the father's flower (which has just blossomed) with a brush and apply it to the stigmas of the mother plant. In this case, pollination can be consideredheld.
When choosing plants for cross-pollination, it must be taken into account that varietal properties are transmitted, as a rule, through the maternal line. In addition, only varieties with the same number of petals need to be crossed. So, for example, plants with three petals cannot be pollinated with six-petal ones. To carry out the process, you should take the very first flower on the peduncle, and all the rest will have to be removed.
After pollination, ovaries should appear, which must be removed, leaving only one. Such measures are necessary so that the mother plant does not weaken. If the seed pods do not have time to ripen before frost, then the flower stalks are cut and placed in a vase with water until fully ripe.
Japanese irises: varieties
Currently, there are a variety of varieties of Japanese irises. They all have completely different characteristics. Among them, you can choose exactly the variety that is most suitable for growing in your region.
Iris Japanese Vine Raffles reaches a height of 80-120 centimeters. The plant has xiphoid leaves, narrowed towards the end. Iris has large lilac-violet flowers that live from three to five days. This variety is incredibly resistant to bacteriosis. The plant should overwinter only in a shelter, otherwise it may simply freeze out. For planting it is better to choose open sunny areas. For good development and growth, the soil must be rich in humus, well drained. With proper care, the plant pleases with numerous wine-red double flowers.
No less beautiful inhabitants of the garden are Japanese irises Cayun Capers. They prefer well-lit areas of the garden. The variety of colors of this variety make it quite popular among amateur gardeners.
Japanese iris Variegata is another member of the family with beautiful large flowers of lilac-violet hues. Plant height reaches 80-120 centimeters. Plants of this variety prefer very sunny places. Like other Japanese irises, Variegata prefers well-drained, humus-rich soils. Each flower reaches 12 centimeters in diameter and lives from three to five days. The plant is not susceptible to bacteriosis.
Japanese iris Momogasumi reaches a height of 75 centimeters. The flowers of the plant are light pink in color (up to 17 centimeters in diameter). Go away and planting this variety is no different from other varieties of Japanese iris.
Disadvantages and advantages of irises
For all their beauty, Japanese irises have low frost resistance, which is not very convenient for our regions. In addition, the flowers of the plant are odorless.
Among the advantages of the plant: resistance to various kinds of diseases, large sizes of flowers and a long period of their life (3-5 days).
It is worth noting that in the Japanese classification there is a separate group called Higo. The number of plants included in it exceeds 3000 names. All of them have very large flowers. These plants are meant to be grown in containers. They can decorate not only the garden, but also yours.Houses. Of course, they will require careful care, like any other variety of Japanese iris, but they can be the best home decoration.