Lighting kerosene: GOST, application. Kerosene lamp "Bat"

Lighting kerosene: GOST, application. Kerosene lamp "Bat"
Lighting kerosene: GOST, application. Kerosene lamp "Bat"
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Kerosene is a clear or yellowish liquid resulting from the distillation of petroleum. It has a specific smell and oily texture. There are several types of this connection. It is used in industry and at home. Kerosene is also used as aviation fuel. The price is much lower than, for example, gasoline or diesel fuel.

Among the produced types of this hydrocarbon, a significant share is occupied by lighting kerosene. It will be discussed further in the article.

Obtaining kerosene

The amazing properties of oil to change their characteristics as a result of distillation were noticed many centuries ago. But only in the XVIII century began to use the products obtained as a result of this process. Even then, scientists wrote that as a result of distillation, oil changes its color from dark to light yellow. It was noted that, in contrast to the starting material, a light substance ignites very easily. These observations formed the basis for the further use of oil and the production of kerosene.

Kerosene is obtained from oil by distillation (or rectification).The second option is the recycling of the same "black gold". In some cases, the composition is subjected to additional hydrotreatment. This process improves the quality of the substance. As a result of these processes, the content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the substance becomes equal to 14-30%.

lighting kerosene

Lighting kerosene is obtained from simple kerosene. For this, the latter is hydrotreated. If we consider this process from a chemical point of view, then hydrogen atoms are attached to the hydrocarbon molecules that make up kerosene. As a result, the bonds of aromatic hydrocarbon molecules with sulfur and other chemical elements are broken. Thus, unnecessary components are removed.

Composition

The composition of kerosene does not have a clear "recipe". It can vary depending on the type of oil from which it is made, as well as on the way it is processed. Substances included in the composition remain unchanged. Only their percentage ratio changes. The main part is occupied by hydrocarbons of various kinds. Depending on the composition, the characteristics of the substance itself also change.

kerosene lighting gost

The components of kerosene are carbons of the following types:

  • Ultimate aliphatic, the content of which can vary from 20 to 60% of the total volume.
  • Naphthenic (from 20 to 50%).
  • Bicyclic aromatic - from 20 to 30%.
  • The content of unsaturated hydrocarbons can be up to 2%.

The rest are impurities of oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. The sulfur content of lighting kerosene does not exceed 0.1 percent due to the hydrogenation process.

Use area

Kerosene is used for lighting in lamps. Regardless of the name, this is its main, but not the only scope.

It is also used in household appliances for heating or cooking. These include:

  • Kerogas is a heating device that used to be widespread. During its operation, there is no direct combustion of kerosene, it simply evaporates. This prevents the formation of soot.
  • A kerosene stove, which differs from the previous type in that kerosene is already burning in it. Therefore, other Vedas of kerosene cannot be used due to the possible formation of soot.
  • Primus, which is similar to a gas burner. It differs only in a different type of fuel. It is often taken by tourists and fishermen.
lighting kerosene co 25

Another area of ​​use is in machines that cut metal. The prevalence in these areas is mainly due to the fact that the flame does not smoke when burning kerosene.

In addition, this type of kerosene can be used as a solvent. It is used in the production of glue, paints and varnishes, rubber, in everyday life (when cleaning clothes, leather products, and so on).

Bat

Kerosene lamps for many have become a greeting from the past, which you sometimes want to remember. Few people use themnow at home. But can you forget that? For example, a kerosene lamp "Bat". Who doesn't remember her? It is something native, something that reminds of childhood. This is, of course, not an official name. But that's what people called her. And it was connected with a trembling light. It flickered, wrapping around the wick, which was usually cut from felt. These are the memories you don't want to forget. Many will call them lyrics. So back to the essentials.

kerosene lamp bat

The "Bat" kerosene lamp is still on sale. It can become a pleasant decoration of a house or a veranda. Its cost today is about eight and a half thousand rubles.

Characteristics of the substance

Russia has developed a clear system of standards that define the basic properties of all materials and substances. Lighting kerosene is no exception. GOST 11128-65 and GOST 4753-68 set the main parameters that this combustible liquid must comply with.

kerosene price

If kerosene is used for lighting, it is important to consider smokeless flame height, sulfur content, flash point and cloud point. The latter indicator characterizes the ability of hydrocarbons to burn at low temperatures. In addition, kerosene for lamps should contain the maximum possible amount of light fractions (that is, saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons).

Types of lighting kerosene

This connection can have several types, each of which has its owncharacteristics. The most common is lighting kerosene KO-25. When it burns, a bright flame is formed, in which soot and other harmful compounds are not formed. In addition, there are also such types of lighting kerosene as KO-20, KO-22, KO-30.

All species have the same sulfur content, which does not exceed 0.003 percent of the total. The acid number is the same, not exceeding the number 1, 3%.

Lighting kerosene KO-30 has the lowest density, which is 0.790 grams per cm3 at a temperature of +20 degrees. The same indicator, but with a minimum value of 0.830 grams per cm3, applies to KO-20.

kerosene for lamps

Flash point for KO-30 is 48 degrees. For other types of kerosene, this value does not fall below forty degrees. At the same time, the cloud point for all types is -15 degrees. And only lighting kerosene brand KO-20 has a cloud point of minus twelve degrees.

Material cost

Let's see how much money you need to spend to buy kerosene. Its price will depend on many factors, including its characteristics.

So, the cost of lighting kerosene KO-25 starts from 35 rubles per kilogram, or 50 rubles per liter if you buy it in bulk. In a container of a small volume, fuel will cost more (about 70-100 rubles per liter).

Lighting kerosene remains a popular commodity to this day. Universal qualities allowit will remain in demand in certain areas of industry and transport.

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