Do-it-yourself compost pit

Do-it-yourself compost pit
Do-it-yourself compost pit
Anonim

The tasks of waste disposal in a country house or garden are particularly acute due to their remoteness from urban infrastructure. You can, of course, organize garbage collection flights, but in conditions of active agricultural activity, this simply does not make sense. Most of the waste, plant residues, fruits and mulch may well come in handy as future fertilizer. To create it, you will need a compost pit, which can be equipped right on the site. The construction will not take up much space and require virtually no financial investment.

Location Requirements

How to make a compost pit

In general, the rules for installing a composter comply with the requirements for the organization of septic tanks and treatment facilities. Environmental regulations must be observed in the first place. So, the distance from the pit to the nearest sources of drinking water (wells, streams, wells) should be 25-30 m.regarding hydrological facilities, it is also not recommended to make compost storages, since effluents from humus can pollute the water. The wind rose is also taken into account. So that the unpleasant smell does not annoy the neighbors and does not pass into the house, it is better to organize the structure in an isolated place. For example, if a compost pit is planned in a country house with a high fence, then it would be optimal to place it in a corner. This solution also minimizes direct sunlight, which can negatively affect the composting process.

What kind of waste is compostable?

At first glance, the waste pit can be seen as a mini-dump or garbage dump. But this is not so, since in the case of compost, the very specific task of forming humus without unnecessary inclusions is set. The following wastes are suitable for such purposes:

  • Grass, straw and hay.
  • Vegetables, fruits with berries, cereals and organic cleanings.
  • Waste from the processing of trees and shrubs - branches, bark, needles, foliage, but only in crushed form.
  • Waste paper and bags made from natural wood raw materials.
  • Wood ash.
  • Second year manure (applies to herbivores only).

Now it's worth considering what you can not fill the compost pit. This group includes two types of waste: materials treated with chemicals and products that, in principle, are not subject to decomposition. For example, it can be bones, inorganic waste, plastics, herbicidal plants, etc. Such raw materials can be disposed of by thermal processing infire.

How to fill a compost pit

Compost pit design options

In its simplest form, this is a homemade wooden frame formed by metal posts and finished with a board. You can use an existing fence cloth, enclosing the waste storage area. But to ensure tight sealing, it still makes sense to organize a new skin, pointwise fitting the rails and leaving no gaps. An important design element is ventilation. This part also has several options. A do-it-yourself compost pit can be assembled from a frame in which a technological hole is initially thought out to ensure free air circulation. In complex capital structures, many summer residents install ventilation pipes. These are a kind of pipe sections, but with air filters that exclude the passage of unwanted elements.

There are also different approaches to the organization of protective devices. The roof is the most important element that will not allow the pit to turn into a swamp due to precipitation. If climatic conditions and the place of operation allow, then you can limit yourself to plastic wrap. It is usually chosen for small-sized structures. Another option is to use construction pallets. They are installed both on the sides and as a top cover.

Concrete pit device technology

A fundamentally different type of compost bin, which should be built with the expectation of an annual production of fertilizer. Of course, in this case, the gardener will need moreeffort, cost and time. How to make a concrete compost pit? First of all, a hole is dug with a depth of about 70-80 cm. In width and length, the dimensions are selected based on the planned volumes of compost - an average of 2x3 m. A formwork is created at the bottom, which is then poured with concrete mortar. The mixture is prepared from sand, cement and gravel. When the concreted surfaces harden, the exit of the pit is equipped with a lid. For this part, a combination of chain-link mesh with boards is used to provide free access for the passage of air.

Cement compost pit

Finnish technology production

The peculiarity of the device of this composter lies in strictly defined parameters. It turns out a cubic block with dimensions of 100x100x100 cm. The meter height and proportionality of the sides are important because of the balance of the volume of waste in terms of the decomposition process. An increase in size increases the risk of overheating of dry particles in the summer, and a decrease causes an uneven distribution of moisture. But in terms of manufacturing, this type of compost pit corresponds to a conventional wooden structure. A wooden frame is also assembled, which is sheathed with slats, and a slate sheet can be provided on top. The advantages of this technology include the possibility of simple arrangement of several blocks in one row. It turns out a sectional pit in which you can produce compost from various types of waste.

What else should be included in the design?

Wooden compost pit

The bottom of the pit, regardless of the structur althe device must be provided with a special bedding based on a slab. For ease of handling the structure, it is worthwhile to provide hinges and handles for opening the lid. If you plan to use raw waste, then it will be useful to organize a small tray next to the unit for temporary drying of the material. This is not required in every case, but the possibility itself will come in handy. To assess the condition of the lower layers at different stages of decomposition, small windows can be made in the design of the compost pit. Cuts are made in the skin with their own hands, then a movable hinged shutter is built in, and from the outside this part can be covered with a layer of waterproofing. By the way, in cold climatic zones, the skin is sometimes supplemented with heaters that protect the contents from freezing.

Methods of masking and decorating the pit

The simpler the device of the compost bin, the more likely it is that its appearance will break the harmony of the decorative area. Therefore, it will not be superfluous to take care of its additional design. The most advantageous option is to use living vegetation for this. It will turn out not just elegant, but also a natural hedge formed by green spaces. One way of this type is to install a net along which liana-like plants run. Climbing shrubs and small trees with a lush crown are also a good way to cover the structure from prying eyes. Also, making a compost pit with your own hands can be realized with a hint of an architectural structure. Stone blocks can be used for this. Small form design stylisticallycan imitate classic recognizable structures, which will add a designer twist to the overall composition of the garden. But whatever the design method, it is important not to forget about the unfavorable environmental background near the pit. That is, fruit trees with shrubs, for example, should not be planted in this zone.

Maintenance of the facility

Compost pit cover

It is worth emphasizing again that the compost bin is not so much a temporary storage of waste as a functional chamber for the formation of humus. During maintenance, it is important to monitor the internal microclimate. So, humidity is one of the key indicators that determine the degree of decay of waste. To maintain it, it is recommended to occasionally moisten the compost material with water from a watering can. Important for humus and access to oxygen. It has already been noted that special holes are created for air circulation, but they will not help the compacted lower layers. Therefore, the compost pit should be turned over and turned over at least once a month. Farmers indicate that under optimal microclimate parameters, it will be enough to make a few holes in the mass of waste with a stick or pitchfork.

Active elements for compost

Compost pit waste

You can count on the creation of high-quality humus in the natural storage environment, but special additives are used to increase the rate of its maturation. In professional farms, biochemical preparations are used for such purposes, but folk recipes can be recommended to an ordinary summer resident. They are also cheaperbypass, and in their function are quite suitable for a small compost pit. You can make a yeast solution with your own hands. One st. a spoonful of yeast is added to a liter container with water, after which a glass of sugar is also poured there. Pour this mixture in small doses into pre-made recesses. Chicken manure with an optimal nitrogen content also has a beneficial effect on the processes of compost formation.

What is better than factory composters?

The idea of ​​self-production, for obvious reasons, attracts many gardeners and summer residents. Nevertheless, the financial costs of the purchase may well be justified by the advantages of a high-tech factory composter. What are they? Firstly, such devices differ in design acceptable for the garden. As a rule, these are dark green plastic constructions of small sizes that organically fit into landscape design. Secondly, most of these models have auxiliary process controls. If a homemade compost pit is just a structure for containing waste, then specialized devices are equipped with timers, thermostats, humidity and temperature sensors. By connecting the electronics to a smartphone or computer wirelessly, you can control the process without even leaving your home. But the cost of country composters reaches 10-15 thousand rubles.

Conclusion

Compost pit humus

Before planning a humus pit on the site, you should think through and clearly define its tasks. The thing isthat different types of compost have their own functional characteristics. For example, traditional humus increases the fruitfulness of plants and helps to accelerate growth. But to create it, it is not enough just to pour waste into a container. To obtain a truly useful material, regular maintenance of the structure is also required. The fact is that it is not difficult to make a compost pit in the country with your own hands - it is enough to assemble a container from boards, slate and pallets. But further operation processes will depend on small tricks. In particular, from the correct substrate at the bottom, the intensity of ventilation and the addition of active elements. You should also remember about the negative factors that can disrupt the composting process. High-quality insulation, coupled with a sealed coating, will provide protection from rain, wind and sun.

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