The genus of anthuriums includes several hundred species. According to various sources, there are from 500 to more than 900 of them. In the Aroid family, this genus is the most numerous. In ancient Greek, its name means "tail" and "flower".
This plant is very popular among flower growers in Russia. It is popularly called "male happiness" by analogy with the "female" flower - spathiphyllum. This is a beautiful flower that can become a real decoration of any interior. However, improper care, in particular illiterate watering, can negate all the efforts of flower growers. How to water anthurium at home so that it grows and develops well? How to care for this spectacular, but quite demanding flower? This will be discussed in the article.
Plants of the genus Anthurium come from the tropical rainforests of the Centraland South America. This determines their need for watering and other conditions. In Europe, they appeared only at the end of the 19th century. The first copy was planted in England, in the Royal Botanic Gardens. Three species out of several hundred deserve special love from flower growers. These are Anthuriums Andre (Anthurium andraeanum), crystal (Anthurium crystallinum) and Scherzer (Anthurium scherzerianum). In the homes of some flower lovers, you can also find climbing anthurium (scandens). This is a vine that requires quite a lot of space, so for the most part it is grown in greenhouses and botanical gardens.
Anthuriums are highly decorative. Plant bracts are usually brightly colored. Flowers tolerate cutting well and can stand in water for up to a month without losing their appearance. They are often used in landscaping and decoration of not only residential, but also office premises.
Caring for different types of anthuriums has much in common, but may differ in details.
This species is native to the tropical rainforests of Colombia. It has a rather short stem. The leaves are large, oblong, lanceolate, heart-shaped at the base, up to 30 cm long, on long petioles. Peduncle can reach 70 cm in length. Inflorescence - cob. Has a slightly wrinkled bedspread that can be red, white, orange, salmon, pink.
It is the hybrid forms of the Andre Anthurium line that are most often found on sale. They are less capricious and lend themselves better to growing at home. In addition, byaccording to scientists, they disinfect the air, as they have a bactericidal effect. In particular, these plants have a detrimental effect on staphylococci.
Grows in the mountain forests of Guatemala and Costa Rica. It has large lanceolate leaves 30-45 cm long, petioles - about 30 cm. The peduncle also reaches 30-35 cm in length. The inflorescence is twisted into a spiral, the cover is glossy, up to 17 cm long, very effective. It can be orange, pink, white, cream or red.
How often to water anthurium at home if it is a type of A. Scherzer? This will be discussed below.
Decorative leaf plant. Stem up to 25 cm long. Spreading leaves, dark green, with white veins. The inflorescence is an ear about 12 cm long, greenish-yellow in color. It has a pleasant aroma, reminiscent of the smell of cloves. Bedspread light green, up to 12 cm long, semi-skinny, oblong.
This species comes from the tropical mountain forests of the Antilles. At home, this evergreen vine can grow up to 1.5 meters in length. She has dense leathery leaves oblong-lanceolate, 10-12 cm long, on short petioles. It is a semi-epiphytic plant. Aerial roots are located along its entire stem. The flowers have a rather inconspicuous appearance, the bedspread is up to 1.5 cm long. Fruits are decorative - berries on the cob, having white, and in somevarieties - lilac color. This anthurium can bloom at any time of the year.
Because these plants are tropical inhabitants, they need warmth, moisture and sufficient sunlight. The temperature is desirable not lower than +22 degrees Celsius. Not only the air should be warm, but also the soil, so in the cold season it is highly undesirable to keep anthuriums on cool windowsills. In a room with anthuriums, the temperature should not fall below + 15 degrees Celsius, this is detrimental to plants. Nor can they tolerate drafts.
Plants are best protected from direct sunlight, but they should also receive a lot of diffused light. The best place for anthuriums is a table or bedside table near a window facing south, west or east. With insufficient lighting, anthuriums will also grow normally, but you can not wait for flowering. In winter, it is desirable to highlight the plants.
How and how many times to water anthurium? This issue will be discussed below.
Most of all, the plant needs moisture during the period of active growth and flowering (spring-autumn). Morning watering is preferable - so there is less chance that the water will stagnate in the pot. Watering an adult plant is necessary after the top layer of the soil dries out. If at a depth of less than two centimeters it is still wet, watering can be skipped. However, this applies only to adult anthuriums. In young plants, the soil should be constantly slightly moist.
How much to water anthurium?It is recommended to do this little by little, carefully, until water appears in the pan. After 30 minutes, it must be drained to avoid root rot.
Anthurium, which grows in a plastic pot with a good layer of drainage, will need less moisture than one that is planted in a clay container, because clay can also absorb some water. This should also be taken into account when figuring out how to water an anthurium flower.
Water must be soft (rain, melt or settled). Anthuriums do not tolerate water with lime. When using lime water, the leaves of plants begin to turn yellow. They grow in an acidic substrate, respectively, water can also be acidified using, for example, lemon juice. However, this should not be done more than once a month. For 1.5 liters, take a teaspoon of juice. You can also spray the leaves with this water.
Water temperature for irrigation should be at least +30-35 degrees Celsius in summer and +20-25 in winter.
Irrigation through pan
Some flower growers recommend using this type of watering mainly. This method, in their opinion, avoids excessive watering and, as a result, rotting of the roots of the plant. How often to water the anthurium in this case? From time to time, you need to alternate top and bottom watering so that the soil is evenly moistened. After all, drainage does not always allow moisture to reach the very top layers of the soil.
Signs of overwatering
Excessive watering at leastdetrimental to this flower. When studying how to properly water anthurium at home, you need to pay special attention to this. Signs of excess moisture are as follows:
- Appearance of softened rotted areas on the plant.
- The earth turns sour and emits an unpleasant smell.
- The roots are starting to rot.
- The plant stops growing.
- Mold appears on the soil. In this case, it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil and sprinkle it with crushed coal. Anthurium trunk can be wiped with a cloth dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Anthuriums need moist air no less than watering. With insufficient air humidity and an excessive amount of light, the leaves of anthuriums begin to curl up into tubules. It is advisable to purchase a humidifier or put the plants on trays with expanded clay or sand, which should be moistened periodically.
You can also spray plants with a spray bottle. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that water does not fall on the inflorescences. Otherwise, they will become covered with spots and quickly fall off. It is the air around the plants that needs to be sprayed: it should be very fine mist, suspension.
From time to time, you need to gently wipe the leaves of plants with a damp cloth or sponge. You can wash it in the shower, but, again, do it carefully so as not to wet the inflorescences. It is advisable to remove excess water from the leaves with a paper towel.
Transplanting and watering after it
Replant adult plants preferably in spring or summer, once every two years, but not inintense heat. Until they reach the age of five, you can do this every year. In the process of transplantation, the plant is conveniently propagated by division ("kids"). This is the optimal time.
A layer of drainage should be poured on the bottom. It will help to get rid of excess moisture after watering. The roots of the plant are examined before transplanting, and if sore spots are found, they should be cut off and sprinkled with crushed coal. Before pruning, you can soak the roots for 20 minutes in a fungicide or potassium permanganate solution.
It is better to buy a wide, but shallow pot. When choosing a container for transplantation, it must be borne in mind that too large a pot will stimulate the formation of "kids", but the anthurium will not bloom well. The plant should not be buried too deep; the leaf socket should not be covered with earth. After transplanting, it is important for several weeks not to disturb the plant once again and not change the position of the pot.
How should anthurium be watered after transplantation? If the transplant was carried out without an earthen clod, and the roots were cleaned and cut off, then you can water the plant for the first time no earlier than the earth dries out three centimeters in depth. A plant transplanted by transshipment, together with an earthen clod, previously watered, can be left alone for several days. Such a pause in watering will not harm him.
And how to water anthurium at home, transplanted by transshipment, if the earth was not previously moistened? In this case, the plant should be allowed to settle for several hours.
Forthe first watering after transplanting, use water that has been settled for at least three days. Of course, it must be warm. The rest of the pallet must be drained.
Anthuriums love slightly acidic soils (pH-5, 5-6, 5). The substrate for these plants should be loose enough, pass air well and not accumulate moisture, not compact so that the roots of the plant do not rot, because in nature they are epiphytes, that is, they grow on trees. At the same time, the soil should provide the anthuriums with the necessary support, that is, be moderately dense. You can buy ready-made soil for aroids in the store, or you can cook it yourself according to one of the following recipes:
- Leaf land, sod land, sphagnum - 2:1:1.
- Humus, leafy soil, peat, sand - 2:1:1:0, 5.
- Soddy land, humus, peat, sand.
Drainage is placed at the bottom of the pot - up to about ¼ of the height. Cones, charcoal, pieces of brick or clay shards (it is important that they do not have sharp edges), crushed pine bark can be added to the soil.
The recommendations given in the article regarding watering and air humidification refer mainly to Andre Anthurium hybrids, since they are most common in our country. As for Scherzer's anthurium, it needs more moisture, including when spraying the leaves. Anthurium crystal, releasing aerial roots, must be watered very carefully, and the roots should be moistened with a spray bottle. They can be rooted using peat.
In the spring-summer period, anthuriums should be fed with complex fertilizer for ornamental flowering plants every two weeks. Experienced flower growers recommend halving its concentration.
Anthuriums can be propagated not only by "children", but also by stem cuttings. Seed propagation is usually very troublesome and ineffective.
The article discussed in detail how to water anthurium, briefly described the most popular species and described the conditions for keeping these plants. They are quite whimsical and need regular care, but it is quite within the power of those who want to have these bright flowers in their home.