With the advent of winter-hardy varieties, it became possible to grow grapes in regions of Russia with a cold climate. Berries can ripen within 100 days if the average daily temperature is +18 degrees. This heat-loving plant is able to produce crops when the summer is cold and rainy, and the soil is loamy or sandy and poorly warmed by the sun. In this article, we will try to figure out how to properly plant grapes with cuttings in the fall.
Why are grapes grown from cuttings?
Vine is planted in three ways:
- Seeds, but this method is not used because the seedling loses many properties that belong to the mother plant.
- Using a rootstock is a big challenge for the amateur gardener.
- Cuttings (otherwise chibouks) - most often used for growing grapes.The advantage of this method is that the process of harvesting them is not particularly difficult. The young bush retains all the properties of the mother plant, and the cuttings are well received, and the vine quickly begins to bear fruit.
When planting, you need to decide when to plant grape cuttings - in spring or autumn, carefully cultivate the soil and prepare planting material in advance.
Optimal time to plant grapes
Propagation of grapes by cuttings can be carried out both in autumn and in spring. Each of these options has its own advantages and disadvantages. There was no consensus among gardeners about the time of planting chibouks in the ground. But most of them believe that it is best to plant them in the spring. And autumn plantings should be made only if in the spring for some reason this is impossible to do. The cuttings are harvested at different times. Some believe that it is better to do this in the spring, when the plant has overwintered and it will be clear which chubuk is better to take. Others cut them in the fall and plant them immediately or store until spring.
Selection of cuttings in spring for planting and soil preparation
How to plant grape cuttings in spring? Many cut chibouks in the fall and keep them until spring, and some harvest planting material during spring pruning of the vine. For reproduction, medium-thick shoots with often located buds are selected, and thick wen are not suitable for this purpose. On the handle, about 50 cm long, up to six buds are left. It is better to plant them immediately in a grape row withoutfurther transplant. To do this, grooves are made 25 cm wide and up to 40 cm deep. The distance between the chibouks must be at least a meter. To warm the earth, a bucket of boiling water is poured into the landing site. After the water has been absorbed, some sand is placed on the bottom, thus making drainage, and then a layer of fertile soil 5 cm thick.
How to plant vine cuttings without roots in spring?
To land in the ground you need:
- Cut off all but the two buds that will remain above the ground.
- Split the lower end of the shank a little for better absorption of moisture and nutrients from the ground.
- Stick it into the ground at a 45 degree angle.
- Pour out a bucket of warm water and let it soak in.
- Fill the cutting with earth, starting from the bottom, leaving only two buds on the surface.
- Tamp the earth lightly on top and make a recess for watering.
- Mulch with sawdust.
The planted shoot should be watered abundantly once a week until the roots grow. After rooting and the appearance of new shoots, they stretch the trellis.
Preparation of cuttings for autumn planting
How to plant grapes in autumn with cuttings? To do this, the first step is to prepare them. The best planting material is considered to be a cutting having at least three eyes and a thickness of 8–12 mm, but thinner specimens are also suitable. Frosts affect harvesting time, so vine pruning begins in early autumn. To do this:
- Material for planting is taken fromhe althy mother bush.
- Escape choose ripe, without mechanical damage.
- At least three buds are left on each cutting, the lower edge is cut off 3 cm below the last knot.
- Optimal length 45 cm.
Shoots ready for planting.
Preparing the soil for planting
It is not enough to know how to plant grapes in autumn with cuttings. Success largely depends on the careful preparation of the soil. The vine does not like soil with high acidity. Therefore, when processing a site, lime is added to acidic soil. It should be noted that saline soil, containing a large amount of soluble s alts, is also not suitable for planting grape shoots. Manure is added to sandy soils, and sand is added to peat-containing soils. When groundwater is close, drainage is done. Before planting, the earth is dug up, fertilized and watered well.
Autumn planting cuttings
Can grape cuttings be planted in autumn? Adherents of this method argue that it is possible. Moreover, autumn planting saves gardeners from storing chibouks in winter. Planting material is planted on a specially designated plot of land for growing grape seedlings, which is called shkolka. To do this, proceed as follows:
- Digging a trench as wide as a shovel and one bayonet deep.
- For fertilizer, they take a bucket of humus per meter of the landing strip, cover it with earth and loosen it.
- The cuttings are stuck into the ground, tilting them to the south, 10–12 cm apart from each other so that one bud remains above the ground.
- The distance between the rows is made at least 30-40 cm for the convenience of caring for seedlings.
- Planting is watered with warm water.
How to plant grape cuttings without roots in autumn? Sometimes they are immediately planted in a permanent place. To do this, holes are made in the prepared soil and two cuttings are placed in each of them in case one of them dies. When rooting both, one of them is dug up and transplanted to a new place. For the winter, they are covered with spruce branches or the bases are sprinkled with earth and a layer of foliage is made on top. In the spring they are removed, and a greenhouse is made over the chibouks. It is periodically ventilated, accustoming young shoots to fresh air. The shelter is completely removed when the threat of frost has passed. Experts believe that grape cuttings can also be planted in the fall. Properly planted and protected, they will sprout earlier in the spring than when planted in the spring.
Preparation of cuttings for planting during autumn pruning
Most often, planting material for spring plantings is harvested in the fall, when the autumn pruning of the bushes is carried out. This procedure at the same time helps to prepare the vine for shelter for the winter, the fewer extra shoots, the more convenient. How to prepare cuttings for planting:
- It should be borne in mind that not every shoot is suitable for reproduction. Do not take weak and sick, as well as strong, but not fruitful shoots. He althy branches that have already been fruiting this season are suitable for planting.
- The thickness of the workpiece is chosen no more than a centimeter in diameter, having at least four kidneys, length 10–15see
- From all cut shoots, foliage, stepsons and mustaches are completely removed, only bark and buds remain.
- The upper oblique cut is made, stepping back from the top of the shoot 2 cm, the lower one - 5 cm from the kidney and at a right angle.
- Several longitudinal cuts of the bark up to 3 cm long are made from the bottom of the cutting for accelerated root growth.
- Distributed into grades and labeled.
- Place for a day in a jar of warm water, adding growth stimulants to it, which have a positive effect on the germination of roots in the spring.
- Treated with a solution of copper sulfate.
- Dry on paper napkins.
- Carefully wrapped in plastic, tied up and refrigerated until spring.
Check the condition of the cuttings once a month, when dry, place them in water again, dry and pack. If mold appears, then wipe it with a solution of potassium permanganate. When to plant grape cuttings prepared in autumn and winter? The best landing time is spring.
Care for cuttings after winter
At the end of the winter dormant period, the chibouks are taken out of the refrigerator and unpacked. After that, the following procedures are performed:
- Dip for disinfection in a solution of potassium permanganate.
- Rinse in clean running water.
- Cut the lower tip straight, and the upper one with an oblique cut up to 1 cm.
- For two days put on soaking in a growth stimulant solution. To do this, use a solution of honey, aloe juice or"Kornevin". The process of root formation is stimulated by rubbing "Heterowasin" into vertical incisions at the lower end of the petiole.
- From above, the cutting is treated with special paraffin or garden pitch.
At home, buds usually bloom on cuttings before the roots begin to grow. Without a root system, the leaves die off due to lack of nutrients. Therefore, in order to slow down the appearance of leaves and accelerate the growth of roots, kilchevanie is used. To do this, the root part of the plant is placed in a warm environment, and the apical part - in a cool one. You can do it like this:
- wrap the lower part of the handle with a cloth dipped in warm water, and cover with a film on top;
- take two plastic bottles: fill one with water heated to 30 degrees, freeze the water in the other;
- put the shoots in the box with the root part on a warm bottle, and the apical part on a cold one;
- top with sawdust and cover with a lid;
- change the bottle of warm water periodically to keep the temperature within 26 degrees;
- Three days later, inspect the lower part of the petioles. Discard all those with root tubercles, leave the rest for kilchevaniya.
Selected chibouks are subject to further rooting, the methods of which are several.
Rooting by the method of R.P. Radchevsky
When to plant grape cuttings prepared in this way? The best period is spring. For rooting, cuttings with two or three buds are taken, with more of them, the vine is divided into parts.For this you will need:
- Put the finished shoots in a transparent container to observe how the roots grow. Pour about 4 cm of settled water into the container, add as the level drops.
- Water change once a week, adding activated charcoal from souring.
- Put the jar on a window with good sunlight.
After two weeks, the shoots will begin to grow, and a little later or at the same time roots will appear. If there are two shoots on the shank, and no roots are formed, then one of them is removed so as not to deplete the shank. When the roots grow, the stalk is carefully transplanted into the soil for growing.
Rooting according to the method of N. L. Puzenko
With this method of rooting, use a piece of cloth or an old, better terry towel. It is moistened with water and the lower part of each cutting is wrapped in turn, leaving the top free. When all the chibouks are wrapped, a plastic bag is put on top of the fabric and the bundle is placed on a cabinet or refrigerator with the tops facing the light. The fabric is moistened every few days. After about two to three weeks, roots will appear and will need to be transplanted into the ground.
Rooting in filler
When to plant vine cuttings rooted with sawdust? In this case, the most favorable time is also spring. Pre-filler:
- pouring from a boiling kettle;
- cool down;
- squeeze out excess water.
Ready-made sawdust is poured in a layer of severalcentimeters into a container or pot and install the cuttings there. Then, another layer of sawdust is poured, and the container is covered with a film. Airing is done daily, and the filler is moistened every three days. Two weeks later, the cuttings are checked for roots. Those who have them are transplanted into the ground, the rest are returned back.
Terms and features of planting
How to plant cuttings of grapes? The final stage of propagation of grapes by cuttings is the planting of rooted chibouks in open ground. It is carried out as follows:
- Plant chibouks in the spring, in early May.
- The place for the vine is chosen well-lit, protected from strong winds and without close groundwater.
- The site is carefully cleared of weeds, dug up and loosened.
- A nutrient soil mixture is poured into pre-prepared planting pits, to which basic fertilizers are added, depending on the characteristics of the soil on the site.
He althy cuttings are planted in the ground without damage to the bark and roots. After planting, abundant watering is done, and mulching is carried out. Shade seedlings if necessary.
Recommendations for further care
Now you know how to plant grapes in autumn with cuttings in the ground. The following are tips for proper care of a young vine. It is very important, as it has a positive effect on the survival of plants, the time of entry into fruiting and the taste of berries. In the first year after planting in the ground, youngseedlings, the main tasks of an amateur gardener are as follows:
- Moisten the soil in time, preventing it from drying out.
- To enrich the soil with nutrients, use ready-made biological concentrates "Optim-humus", "Biovit", "Vermistim".
- Constantly remove stepchildren from young bushes so that they do not take away the nutrients necessary for the active growth of the plant.
- Regularly carry out weeding and loosening of the soil, improving the supply of air to the root system.
- Cutting (pruning the surface roots) of grapes to deepen the root system of the bushes, which will improve the winter hardiness of plants.
- For preventive purposes to combat fungal infection, treat the plant in the five-leaf phase using Bordeaux liquid.
For the winter period, plants must be covered to keep them from frost.
Grapes are propagated in various ways. But even with such a popular cultivation of chibouks, many have conflicting opinions about when it is better to plant cuttings of grapes - in spring or autumn. And also about whether they need to be germinated or immediately placed in the ground. Growing grapes is a rather painstaking process that requires certain knowledge, skills and adherence to technology. In order to understand all issues, experience is needed, and it is acquired during work. Therefore, you need to try all the growing methods and choose the best one. And how to plant grapes with cuttings in autumn and spring, yougot acquainted by reading the article.