In rural areas, where there is no centralized water supply in houses, it is necessary to extract water for drinking and domestic needs from wells and underground sources. Such water has more advantages than the one used by city residents: a natural ground filter makes it clean and better to drink.
There are three types of underground water sources:
- Soil water - formed in the surface layers due to precipitation.
- Ground water - appears due to the subsidence of soil water into the deeper layers of the earth.
- Interstratal water is a natural source of moisture located deep between two layers of soil.
This is exactly the kind of clean water that is produced using shaft and tube wells.
There are several varieties of this structure, for example, a well, a column. Often they can be found on the street. To get wateryou need to pump a hand pump. A tubular well is installed in places where water lies at a shallow depth:
- Shallow construction - up to 40 meters deep. Holes up to 9 meters are drilled, and then pipes are clogged. Only applicable in soft ground.
- Deep construction - more than 40 meters.
Wells are drilled up to fifty meters by the shock-cable method. A column or rotor is installed above the ground to extract water. During the drilling process, pumping equipment is installed. If the soil is unstable or the well is being laid at a considerable depth, a casing string must be used to avoid collapse of the earth. The tight connection of the pipeline prevents soil from entering the water during further operation.
After a competent study of the characteristics of the soil, you can begin to build a tubular well, the device of which and the method of drilling are completely dependent on the expected depth of water passage and the mobility of the earth layers. When drilling can be used:
First start drilling the well until the first appearance of water to install the casing. Devices responsible for water intake are equipped with perforation and a filter. These types of wells are best done away from septic tanks, garbage and cesspools.
Tubular well has many advantages, which makes many equip it near their home. For example:
- Water always stays clean because the design of the well prevents outside debris from getting in.
- It can be placed near the house, in the garden.
- Perfect source of drinking water.
- You can extract water, no matter how deep the first water horizon is.
There are also a few drawbacks:
- Unable to extract groundwater.
- It is not recommended to use the well regularly, the risk of flooding the source increases.
- You need to choose the right time to drill. Otherwise, the source may become shallow.
If you plan to install a shallow tube well, you can build it yourself.
Water intake systems up to ten meters deep can be made on the garden plot yourself by driving pipes into the ground. At the place where the tubular well (well) will be installed, we dig a pit, a shaft up to two meters deep and 1.5 by 1.5 meters in diameter. A tripod is installed over the channel and a heavy drilling tool called a jumper is thrown through it. The first pipe with the filter and weight is lowered. At a height of twenty centimeters from the filter, another one is attachedcollar. The pipe is hammered into the ground with a weight on a rope. The load lowered at speed drives the bolt into the ground. Every five or ten strokes, the drill is pulled out and cleared of the earth. And so on until the first horizon of water appears.
After the appearance of the first water, the casing pipes are lowered, continuing to drill with the bailer. A sharp increase in water in the well indicates the thickness of the layer. There is no soil on the walls of the drilling rig. Next, a smaller jumper is used, gradually lowering the casing pipes to an even more powerful water flow. Everything that is around the pipe on the surface of the earth is filled up, the soil is rammed. The entire space behind the casing strings is covered with clay so that surface dirty water does not get into the source.
After completion of the drilling of the well, the tubular well must be equipped with a pump. A suction pipe and a filter about four meters long are fixed at the bottom of the pump. The gap between the pump and the walls of the casing pipe is filled with winding and lowered. The intake pipe and the pump must be at least one meter lowered into the water so that the source does not quickly become shallow when pumped out. The lowest casing pipes should overlap the filter to a height of up to two meters.
Materials and filters
A tubular well for water is being built with the permission of the sanitary and epidemiological authorities, and it is they who give permission for the use of certain materials inwell laying. The filter must be as strong as possible, not succumb to corrosion and mechanical damage, not clogged with sand and silt. This device should protect the walls of the well from collapse and prevent soil and other debris from entering the groundwater.
The shape and type of the filter is chosen based on the properties of the soil. For example:
If the soil is rocky, contains pebbles or gravel from two to ten centimeters, you can use tubular filters with perforations in the form of a slot or circles.
For coarse sandy soil with fine gravel from one to ten millimeters, the water inlet part of the filter is made of stainless wire winding or steel sheet.
If the ground is soft, sandy, a tubular-shaped filter made of galoon mesh with gravel is used. They allow you to hold foreign elements up to 0.5 mm in size.
Varieties of filters
The water intake filter for wells consists of three parts:
- The working mechanism of the pump itself.
- Overfilter pipe.
The pump is lowered into the last casing string so that sand does not get into the filter. A gland is installed on top and cemented for about 5 meters. The overfilter pipe has a device with which the pump is lowered and raised into the well. The bottom of the filter is a sump that collects sand and debris that enters the device.
Bdepending on what the tubular well will be, the filter design also changes. This is also affected by the quality of the soil where the water flow passes. They are:
- porous concrete-gravel;
The main part of the filter consists of a pipe with holes, there are also rods on which the filter mesh is installed. The durability of the pumping device depends on the quality of the material from which it is made, as it is constantly under the influence of water.
The most common frame-rod filters: the frame is made of stainless steel, and the filter system is made of a wire spiral up to 2 millimeters in diameter. They can be installed in a tubular well up to two hundred meters deep. All other pump models are allowed to be installed to a depth of no more than one hundred meters. For example:
- asbestos cement;
Through holes should prevent soil and rock from getting inside the pump as much as possible, but at the same time have a high level of wellness. Wellness - the ratio of through holes in relation to the total surface of the filter. The higher this level, the more durable the device will be. Frame-rod filters have the worst category of water permeability - 60 percent.
Worth it or not?
In the gardencan't do without a well. This is not only a source of high-quality drinking water, but also the possibility of watering the garden. Even the presence of centralized water supply does not always save. Therefore, such a well will never be superfluous. The main thing is to choose the right place and time for drilling. Otherwise, the well may become shallow or very dirty.