How does a toilet work? Types and designs of toilet bowls

How does a toilet work? Types and designs of toilet bowls
How does a toilet work? Types and designs of toilet bowls

The toilet is a special thing. While it is working, no one is interested in its device and principle of operation. But when it comes to a breakdown or the need to choose new plumbing equipment, it is important to understand how the toilet works. Then you can easily repair it or choose the right model.

From the history of the toilet

The first cistern-equipped toilet was designed for the Queen of England. This was in 1596. However, during this period, there was not even a sewer system in the project, which seriously hindered the distribution of this equipment. Development stopped.

The inventors were able to return to further research and design only after 150 years - a device appeared that resembles modern compact toilet bowls. This was the development of the English engineer T. Twyford. He called the model so - Unitas, which means "Unity" in translation.

toilet device

How does it work?

There is water in the tank to flush the bowl.The flush is triggered by a lever that raises the valve, which in turn allows water to enter and pass through the holes under the rim.

There is a bend at the connection between the toilet bowl and the sewer pipe - it is necessary for the outflow of liquid from the toilet bowl. Also, due to the bend, sewer gases do not penetrate into the room. Water after activating the tank provokes a decrease in the level of the float in the tank and pushes what is contained in the bowl into the sewer. Next, the valve starts the flow of water into the toilet bowl and it is filled to a certain set level.

How is a toilet cistern

Requirements for toilets

Oddly enough, but the following requirements are imposed on these plumbing fixtures in the state standard:

  • The height of the structure after installation should be 400 mm.
  • The device must withstand static loads up to 200 kg.
  • The volume of water in the drain tank must be at least 6 liters.

These characteristics are mandatory for all businesses and brands that are engaged in the production of sanitary ware.

Cup device

Many are interested in how the toilet bowl works. Water from the supply pipe enters the tank. There are two systems inside it - one regulates the water supply, the second is responsible for draining.

The filling system accumulates water to the level. The float mechanism determines whether the water has reached the set value. When the volume is too high, the float valve activates and the water flow stops.

Drainthe equipment starts working when the button, combined with the damper, is pressed. When pressed, the damper opens slightly and water enters the bowl.

water supply to the toilet bowl

Types of toilet bowls by bowl geometry

The shape of the bowl should be such as to provide maximum comfort during use, a high level of hygiene and functionality. There are several product forms:

Funnel bowl. The main advantage of this geometry is hygiene. This is achieved by the special position of the funnel - it is located in the very center of the bowl. The funnel allows you to quickly and thoroughly remove waste products. The disadvantages include a surge, which with such a structure will definitely be - design features

toilet pipe connection

Dish-shaped bowl. This design is distinguished by a flat platform where waste accumulates. The platform can only be cleaned with water jets. This is an outdated solution, although the shape eliminates splashing. On sale, devices with a similar geometry are less common, since its hygiene is extremely low

toilet cistern mechanism with button

A visor bowl. Widespread bowl geometry. There is a ledge that prevents splashes. The special shape with a slope allows you to wash feces off the walls without a trace

How is a toilet cistern


According to the method of flushing, toilet bowls are divided into models of cascade direct type. It is also possible to single out models of the inversely circular type.Decisions have pros and cons.

Rarely, but it happens that manufacturers try to create non-standard drain systems, where the bowl is filled with water and quickly descends. The whole bowl is covered in this way, but the owner will pay with a large amount of water - it can be 8 liters or more.

If you read GOSTs and SNiPs, then it is exactly indicated how the toilet is arranged and what characteristics it should have. In GOSTs it is noted that the volume of the tank should be no more than 6 liters. However, modern drain systems operate in economical and maximum modes. In the case of maximum operation, the water consumption will be twice as large.

Other equipment selection criteria depend on the type of connection of the toilet bowl with the sewer pipe in the apartment.

Flush types:

  1. Direct flush systems. Here the water flow will pass through only one of the parts of the bowl. With a general durability, it is impossible to provide high-quality washing of the surface. Of the advantages, only accessibility is distinguished. The main drawback, apart from the incomplete coverage of the bowl, is noise and splashing.
  2. Circular flush. Several jets of water are directed at different angles to the inner surfaces of the bowl. Streams move in two directions. This allows you to process up to 95% of the entire bowl. There is almost no noise or splashing of water during operation.
How is the toilet button

Types of discharge into the sewer system

If we consider how the toilet is arranged according to these parameters, then they produce equipment with a vertical, horizontal, and also with an oblique outlet.The choice of one or another design depends on the sewer inlet on the pipe in the apartment and its location.

Types of issue:

  1. Slanting issue. The system was distributed along with standing sewer systems - it was operated in the 80s.
  2. Horizontal release. Modern sewer systems are specially designed for the use of equipment with a horizontal outlet. The junction of the toilet with a sewer pipe with an oblique outlet will not allow you to install a toilet with a horizontal outlet - you will need special adapter pipes.
  3. Vertical exhaust system. Vertical release was widespread in buildings in the first half of the twentieth century. In modern construction, vertical outlet and sewerage under it are common in the United States. Communications are mounted there without binding to the walls. This approach allows you to install a bathroom anywhere in the apartment. Pipelines are easily hidden behind wall or floor cladding.
connecting a toilet to a sewer pipe

Classification by materials

The way the toilet is built also depends a lot on the materials. The first models that deserved the attention and recognition of contemporaries, which received gold awards at a sanitary exhibition in 1884, were made of faience and decorated with a wooden seat. Since then, much has changed and today the range of materials has greatly expanded.


  • Faience. The faience toilet bowl is characterized by low strength and high porosity. It hinders processesmaintenance and cleaning. The use of earthenware in modern realities is very limited, since toilet bowls are fragile and there is a significant risk of chips and cracks. With the help of modern production technologies, although they increase these parameters, faience loses a lot compared to other toilet bowls.
  • Porcelain. A porcelain compact is more durable than a faience product. The surface is easier to clean, the strength makes it possible to install the device not only in private residential apartments, but also in public places. The only negative is the high price. It comes at a high cost. To reduce production costs, manufacturers use ceramics - the surface is less glazed, the mass of the product is greater, and less strength. Sanita toilet bowls differ in high quality and reasonable price. The company offers porcelain solutions of various types and designs.
  • Cast iron, steel. Metal plumbing equipment, in addition to gold and other precious metals, is classified as a classic. Such solutions are installed mainly in public places. Such equipment is easier to clean, it has great durability, but the price is also very high. The most unpopular - cast iron toilets. This is due to the huge mass and instability of the enamel coating before mechanical damage.
  • Glass, stone. Glass toilet bowl, models made of natural and artificial stone - this is modern in plumbing. The equipment is distinguished by its high price and exquisite appearance. There is a lack of strength, but it is compensated by the use ofartificial analogues, visually and tactilely not inferior to natural materials.
  • Plastic. Technology makes it possible to produce toilet bowls from acrylic. These products have high strength due to reinforcement. They are easy to maintain, almost completely free of porosity - this contributes to a high level of hygiene. Among the shortcomings, one can single out the risk of deformations due to thermal or mechanical effects.

Fastener Methods

From how the toilet is arranged and how it is attached, one can distinguish suspended and floor structures. At the same time, floor can be divided into wall and ordinary.

Fastening methods:

  1. Outdoor solutions. Models are affordable and easy to install. Devices are recommended for spacious bathrooms. Installation is carried out on anchor bolts and will take a minimum amount of time. Design features allow you to install equipment without damaging the flooring. For small bathrooms, small wall-mounted toilets are recommended.
  2. Suspended structures. The devices are designed for installation in small rooms. The fastening system is designed for static loads of 400 kg or more. Plus, it's available cleaning space, and the space saved can be used to install a bidet.

Most often, the suspension device is fixed above the floor and mounted either in a block or frame way. The frame provides rigid fastening of the toilet bowl to the floor, wall and is placed under the false wall. Pipes and other pipes are connected to the toiletitems.

When block mounting, the frame is mounted on a load-bearing wall. Installation depth - 150 mm. You can save space only with the help of false walls or special niches with metal beams.

Starting the drain is carried out by the button. How is the toilet button? Everything is simple. She controls the valve that lets water into the bowl.

small toilet

Cup mount

There are several types of tank attachment and placement. Depending on the specific model of the toilet bowl, a separate and combined design is distinguished:

  1. Toilet separately, tank separately. The tank is installed under the ceiling and connected to the toilet via a metal or plastic pipeline. To control the drain mechanism, a lever with a chain or cord is removed from the tank. The device was invented and created more than 100 years ago and has a higher drain rate. It cleans the bowl better than other brands.
  2. Toilet and cistern together. The compact design is distinguished by mounting the tank directly on the toilet bowls or on a special shelf. The system is popular because there is no need for additional installation operations. In addition, the compact can be installed regardless of the distance to the wall. The mechanism of the toilet bowl with a button is implemented here.

One of the varieties of models combined with a tank is a monoblock. However, the tank is not fixed with bolts and rubber seals. The manufacturer casts one-piece construction.

toilet sanita

Accessories fortoilets

Modern structures are turning into robotic equipment - for example, in public toilets in Japan, the equipment thanks you for going into it. The electronics starts the drain itself.

Many handicapped accessories are also made. They can't always use the toilet properly. For such cases, pads for the disabled on the toilet are made. They are designed to equip the structure with handrails and increase the height of the device. Nozzles are versatile and have the necessary adjustments. There are models for sale for people with any disability and other diseases.

Toilet covers for the disabled make their life even more comfortable and the use of the sanitary device becomes more pleasant.

toilet seat for the disabled


The toilet bowl has a long and interesting history of formation. It's not just a plumbing fixture. From the material of the article it is clear how it works, and when choosing, consumers will know what to look for.

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