Windows in the house are used for natural ventilation, lighting and insolation - irradiation of surfaces with ultraviolet radiation. They are a building envelope and must comply with soundproof and heat engineering standards.
Types of glasses
Glass is the standard material used in a window unit to fill an opening. Window glasses are presented in many variations, for example:
- hardened - having increased resistance to impact and temperature extremes;
- reinforced - safe and heat resistant;
- reflective (reflex) - used to protect from the sun;
You can also find mirrored translucent options that create a cozy coolness in the house by reflecting the sun's rays. Such window glass, while using the air conditioner, can significantly save energy.
Film coatings, which give certain decorative and functional characteristics, have become widespread. They are able to provide one-way visibility, sun protection, tinting, sound insulation,flame retardant, energy saving, impact resistance. Spray or specialized film is used for tinting.
To implement a design project and solve certain problems, triplex glass, designer glass (matte, sandblasted and others), stained-glass windows, decorative glass are used.
Thanks to the design of modern windows, there is an extensive choice of ways to fill the light opening, which allow you to find an individual solution for each case. It is necessary to take into account the functions assigned to the window. For example, there is no need for a complex design if there are no high requirements for sound and heat insulation. If a single-leaf version with selective glass and double-glazed windows meets the regulatory requirements for a given region, then this design scheme will suit the consumer.
There are triple, double and single glazing. The first two options are divided into windows with separate and connected sashes, and the glazing used can be ordinary or double-glazed.
Window panes can be held by both blind window sashes and frames. Boxes used instead of sashes are installed as an insulated element.
Double-glazed windows consist of two or more glasses, which have a tight contour connection and separation by layers of inert gas or air. Ordinary or selective window glass can be used, reducingheat loss. When using special coatings, it is possible to obtain a given spectrum of sunlight falling into the premises. By changing the composition of the gas filling, the distance between the panes, the types of material and the film coating, you can choose the option with the specified functions.
Installation of the glazing system is possible in window blocks made of any materials, including traditional wood. There are special programs that simplify the process of choosing the right solution.
Window glass: dimensions and compliance
The required level of illumination is calculated, depending on the purpose of the rooms, by determining the exact ratio of the size of the floor and window openings. Also, the proportions and dimensions of windows must comply with decorative and building requirements. It is worth paying attention to the fact that in terms of hygiene standards, increased lighting improves the living environment, but at the same time contributes to higher costs for construction and heating.
Window glass thickness
According to GOST, double-glazed windows in thickness should be from 16 to 46 mm. The thermophysical properties increase with increasing glass thickness. But the increase in performance occurs with attenuation - from a specific moment, the growth of thermal insulation decreases with each additional cm of a double-glazed window. In this case, a good effect is the use of energy-saving glass options with a special low-emission surface. The thickness does not significantly affect the soundproofing properties.
When fillinginterglazing space with gases having an increased density compared to ordinary air, heat losses that occur due to convection are reduced. Dynamic viscosity, density and conductivity have a direct effect on the thermal conductivity of the space between the panes.
It is also worth noting that if the double-glazed window is damaged, the replacement of window panes will not be a way out of the situation, it will have to be completely changed. But thanks to the design of modern PVC windows, it becomes much easier to make the necessary changes. The cost of repairs is added up from the cost of producing double-glazed windows and installation work.