Cottage heating: project, equipment, installation

Cottage heating: project, equipment, installation
Cottage heating: project, equipment, installation

Country house, perhaps, is the dream of almost every city dweller. This type of real estate has a lot of advantages, ranging from the absence of noisy neighbors to picturesque landscapes that can be observed from the window. As the fundamental advantages of living outside the city, as some people note, is the unique opportunity to choose and then independently arrange a fairly inexpensive and efficient heating system that will not require intervention from specialists.

Despite the fact that the most common is the water circuit, homeowners quite often choose a different type of coolant. But initially it is necessary to carry out the design of heating, which is an important stage of construction. If everything is done correctly, then the owners will be able to eliminate many problems during the operation of the system. Having carried out the design according to all the rules, you will be able to determinetechnical parameters and select and arrange all the elements by planning the costs.

Types of heating systems

cottage heating

Before installing heating in a cottage, it is necessary to consider the types of systems that are most common today. For example, air heating is expensive, but it works by circulating air. The streams move due to the temperature difference and are forced by a special fan. To operate such a scheme, you will need an air vent and a heat generator. If you decide to independently install the heating in the cottage, then you can use the electrical circuit, which is cheap and easy to install.

When designing, it is necessary to decide whether convectors, underfloor heating or infrared ceiling heaters will be used. The downside is hefty energy bills during operation.

If you have a small country house or cottage, then the best solution would be a heating system based on a stove or fireplace. But the rooms will heat up unevenly, and when moving away from the heat source, cold areas will form. Heating of a country house, as well as a cottage within the city, is most often implemented using a water system, which involves the installation of radiators and pipelines. A lot of money will have to be allocated for installation work, but the system pays for itself during operation. The master will need to implement a closed circuit, inside which a heatedboiler water. Cooling down, she will come back.

Water system design

country house heating

When water heating of a country house is being equipped, it is initially necessary to make a design, it provides for the choice of batteries, pipes, as well as a boiler and an expansion tank. Not without a circulation pump. This stage will depend on the chosen method of movement of the coolant, which can be forced or natural. If you prefer the natural movement of water, then the circuit will be non-volatile, while the coolant moves due to the physical laws of nature. After the water is in the radiators, it rises, and the cold sinks down.

The technology involves the installation of a pipe at a slope, while the tank must be at the highest point. For arranging direct supply, pipes of a larger cross section should be prepared than for reverse supply. If you decide to work on a natural circulation system, it will cost less because it does not require pressurization equipment. If you want to equip the heating of the cottage, which will be based on a system with forced water movement, then you will need to purchase a pump, it will constantly pump water. The device is installed at the end of the pipe with reverse movement. Forced circulation is considered faster, more economical and more efficient, which ensures uniform heating of all rooms. But such a scheme also has its drawbacks, which are expressed in high cost and dependencepump from electricity supply.

Factors influencing the choice of heating system

heating installation in the cottage

If you are thinking about which heating scheme is right for you, then it is important to pay attention to some criteria, among them: access to electricity, aesthetic preference, type of heating boiler, as well as the size of the budget for the work. If the allocated funds are not enough, then it is best to use a gravity system, which is implemented in houses with one or two floors. Such a scheme is also suitable for small-sized buildings. Experts advise to pay attention also to the fact that there are restrictions on the horizontal radius of such a chain. Horizontal pipelines should not be more than 30 meters in length. This is due to slight circulation pressure in the circuit.

When it is required to equip the heating of a cottage, property owners also pay attention to the main advantages that are inherent in a gravity system. First of all, you will not spend a lot of money on materials, operation and maintenance. Among other things, there is no need to use a circulation pump, which can cause additional noise and vibrations. If it breaks, it can be quite costly to repair. After completion of the installation work, the gravity system will not have to be replaced for 40 years, which is exactly the service life of this heating system. If a breakdown occurs, then the user will be able to fix the problem on his own, without resorting to the help of specialists. This heating system hasability to self-regulate. This is the key to excellent thermal stability.

Main equipment

wood heating

Gravity heating of a cottage provides for the need to purchase the following equipment: a piping system, an expansion tank, a boiler, and heating appliances. Among the latter, it is worth highlighting batteries and radiators.

Mounting principle

cottage heating calculation

The horizontal piping system will have to be laid, observing the slope directed towards the movement of the coolant. This is necessary to stimulate water circulation. The slope angles of the pipes must be observed, which is necessary to drain water into the expansion tank. You can’t do without a slope, also because the air must necessarily leave the system, otherwise traffic jams will form. The expansion tank thus receives a stabilization function.

For reference

heating boilers for a cottage

When laying horizontal pipes, the slope angle should be determined as follows: per meter length, the slope is approximately 5-10 millimeters in height.

Specialist recommendations

cottage heating scheme

Cottage heating should be designed taking into account hydraulic forces, since due to them the water will move along the circuit. The intensity of the flow will depend on the height of the circuit. This statement is especially true in the case of the difference in height between the batteries and the boiler. Concerningresistance of the pipeline, it will depend on the diameter of the pipes. If the installation of the circuit is carried out with numerous turns and branches, this will increase the hydraulic resistance. It is not necessary to install filters, taps and other fittings in large numbers, as well as a pipeline of small diameter, as this will all become an obstacle to normal circulation. In order for there to be normal pressure inside the circuit, it is necessary to reduce the influence of resistance objects. An alternative solution to this problem is to increase the diameter of the pipe.

Installation of a gravity two-pipe system

The cottage heating scheme may include the arrangement of a gravity two-pipe system, which has two separate circuits designed for the movement of hot water. Heated water will move along one part, while chilled water will move along the other. During installation work from the boiler equipment upwards, it is necessary to take the line connected to the expansion tank. The last element should be indoors under the ceiling or in the attic. The attic must be insulated at the same time. From below, a hot circuit pipe is connected to the piping in the room.

In order to ensure the removal of excess coolant into the sewerage system, a pipe must be brought into the tank. The pipelines will come to the batteries from the wiring. At the bottom of the heating appliances, a pipe should be led into the return line leading to the boiler equipment. When a cottage heating project is drawn up using such a system, one shoulddesignate the location of the return line, which is laid parallel to the straight line, passing through all the premises.

What you need to know when designing a single pipe system

The advantage of this natural circulation scheme over a two-pipe one is that the hydrodynamic pressure in the circuit will not depend on the location of the heaters. The expansion tank must be 3/4 full and the tank volume must be 30 liters.

Designing a gas heating system

If you like gas heating of a cottage more, then the design should include the choice of a double-circuit or single-circuit scheme. In the first case, the house will be equipped with running hot water and an independent hot water circuit. To provide heat, you need to use single-circuit systems. The design provides for the choice of boiler power, circulation pumps, characteristics of heating batteries. You can take advantage of the possibility of arranging a floor heating system, as well as installing a jacuzzi, pools and taps.

After you have to decide which gas: bottled liquefied or main will be used for heating. For heating on gas cylinders, single-circuit and double-circuit boilers of different capacities can be used. Most of them are adapted for operation in tandem with liquefied gas. It will only be necessary to change the burner or purchase a new one. The heating system from the main gas has a higher environmental friendliness, but it has its drawbacks, which are the needcoordination of all documentation with the relevant services. We will have to equip the boiler room, as well as install a chimney.

Calculation of gas consumption

Before starting work, it is important to calculate the heating of the cottage. In order to get 1 kilowatt of thermal energy, it will be necessary to spend 0.1 m3 of gas per hour. If you need to heat a room of 200 square meters, you will need to purchase a 20 kW boiler. At full power, it will consume 2 m3/hour, which can be calculated by multiplying 20 by 0.1. If we divide the heating season into two stages, three months of which will be cold, and the rest three - moderate, then for 100 days the equipment will operate at full capacity. For ease of calculation, the number of days of each period can be rounded up to 100. During the same time, the equipment will operate at half or a quarter of its capacity. Thus, to find out the cost of heating in a cottage, you need to determine the average daily fuel consumption for the first period, which will be 20×0, 1×24=48 m3. For the second period, this value will be equal to 24 cubic meters. By adding the figures obtained, you can calculate the total consumption for the season, which will be 7200 cubic meters.

Features of installation work

The arrangement of a gas-based system is carried out in several stages, first heating boilers for the cottage are selected, which will then be installed. Then the master can begin to mount the highway, as well as heating risers. It is important to pay special attention to the control equipment, as well asautomation. At the last stage, commissioning and testing of the system are carried out. It is important to use different modes.

Using electricity for heating

Heating cottages with electricity is also quite common today. After all, it is not always possible to use gas equipment, which is the cheapest in operation. If a gas main is not connected to your home, then an electric boiler will be the best solution to the problem. It is environmentally friendly and safe, does not emit unpleasant odors, and during operation, the owner of the house does not have to load fuel. Before starting installation work, you need to decide which option to use electricity to apply. The first involves the use of heating devices that will heat the room, while the second involves the installation of devices that will heat the coolant or other liquid. To equip a system based on an electric boiler, you will need: convectors, pipes, and radiators. Some systems may be equipped with a relief valve to protect against overpressure.


If you rarely visit a country house, then wood heating is perfect for you. This can use a conventional furnace or solid fuel boiler.

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