Ficuses: types, description, features of growing at home

Ficuses: types, description, features of growing at home
Ficuses: types, description, features of growing at home
Anonim

Ficuses are beautiful evergreens that will decorate any home or office. Even before the revolution, the presence of ficuses in the house indicated the we alth and aristocracy of the owners. Ficuses belong to the Mulberry family, tropical forests are considered their homeland. There are about 800 species and each has an individual beauty. In this article, we will take a closer look at the most popular types of ficuses.

Main species

Under natural conditions, the most famous variety of ficus is fig (fig tree). The homeland of most plants is the Asian tropics. Therefore, all representatives of this family love warm, humid air. We will consider the names of ficuses with a description below. Varieties differ in appearance, size, shape and size of leaves.

The most common varieties of indoor ficus include:

  • Benjamin.
  • Rubber-bearing.
  • Bengali.
  • Creeping.
  • Lyrate.
  • Dracaena.
  • Karika.
  • Palmera.
  • Ivy-shaped.
  • Microcarp.

Some types of ficus are similar in structure to trees, others to lianas. But the care requirements for all these flowers are almost the same.

Evergreen shape

The largest subgroup of ficus classification, containing many varieties. The roots of these original plants come from India and neighboring countries. The people living there treat the evergreen representatives of the Mulberry family with great trepidation. One of the ficus species with heart-shaped leaves is considered a sacred flower by Buddhists. Especially near the temples, ficuses are planted, which are worshiped and carefully cared for.

Ficus rubber

Bottle variety

The dry land of Mexico is considered the birthplace of plants. This was the reason for the appearance of such a bizarre form of ficus. Having a superficial root system, ficus accumulates moisture in the lower part of the trunk. This is possible due to their special structure. At the top, the trunk remains narrow. At home, they are grown in shallow wide flowerpots.

Ficuses belong to the bottle group:

  • Benjamin.
  • Rubber-bearing.
  • Dwarf.
  • Natasha.
  • Palmera.
  • Rusty.
  • Arrow-shaped.

They are mostly evergreen species, but there are also deciduous variations.

Ampel species

In addition to tall representatives, the multiple genus of ficus also contains liana-like subspecies. Their main difference is the smaller size of the leaves and the ability to creep and braid frames and supports. An effective element of interior decor. Ideal for vertical gardening: as ampelous crops in hanging pots, or as ground covers in wide flowerpots, together withtall species. In nature, they can be found in the lower tier of the tropical jungle.

Ampel view of ficus

Ampelous ficuses are demanding on a good microclimate: air humidity, soil and diffused lighting. The most famous representatives of this group of ficuses are:

  • Dwarf. It is characterized by rounded miniature leaves, the length of which does not exceed 3 cm. The plant is an epiphyte, originally from Indochina.
  • Mountain. Differs in leaves similar to oak, and significant pubescence of the vine. Malaysia, Indonesia is considered the homeland.
  • Creeping. A plant with strong adventitious roots-suckers, providing the ability to cling to any surface. Homeland - Japan.
  • Rooting. It has thin vines-stems and elongated dark green leaves, reaching a length of up to 7 cm. Homeland - India.

Ficus rubbery

This species is rightfully considered the most famous. It is found in the wild in the tropical forests of India and Malaysia and can reach a height of up to 60 meters. It grows rapidly and retains its decorative effect for many years. The trunk in diameter reaches 2 meters. The leathery leaves reach a length of 30 cm. Their color changes from brownish to dark green as the plant matures. There are subspecies with variegated foliage, with different shades of green, white or pink, and even tricolor forms. Suitable for growing in pots. Only at home, periodically cut the leaves so that the crown does not lose its shape.

Ficus rubber

The varieties of rubber ficus include such popular varieties:

  • Robusta is the tallest member of the family.
  • Belize.
  • Melanie.
  • The Black Prince.

This ficus is unpretentious in care, so beginners can safely choose it for breeding.

Ficus Benjamin

Popular ficus, another name of which is brilliant. Its graceful, thin branches, growing, form a spreading crown, with thin and small foliage. At home, in southern Asia and northern Australia, it grows up to 30 meters. There, at high humidity, aerial roots form on the shoots, which, reaching the ground, take root themselves, and, growing, occupy a large area, forming a kind of gazebo. Leaves can be either plain or variegated. At home, low varieties are grown with decorative small foliage. With good care, you can get a plant 2-3 m in height. The trunks are weaveable and suitable for making bonsai.

Ficus Benjamin. Bonsai

This variety has several species that differ in leaf shape:

  • Variegated Kinki - a dwarf variety with small narrow leaves, with a different color border around the edge.
  • Ficus Natasha - has the smallest leaves.

Ficus Bengal

Looks interesting and unusual thanks to velvety leaves up to 20 cm long and a unique banyan life form. Able to grow rapidly. Aerial roots formed on lateral shoots take root, become lignified and withover time, they become similar to bearing trunks. One copy of this variety often becomes a whole grove.

Features of cultivation

When choosing a ficus for indoor gardening, you need to remember that these plants love good lighting. Variegated varieties are more sun tolerant, while solid greens can grow even in shade. One has only to protect ficuses from direct sunlight to protect the plant from burns. In winter, with short daylight hours, additional lighting is needed. It is undesirable to move ficuses - they do not like it.

The room temperature must be kept between 22-25 oC in summer and 17-20 oC in winter. It is also important to provide protection against drafts. Ficuses instantly respond to a drop in temperature and hypothermia of the soil by dropping leaves.

When the air in the room is dry, flowers are more often irrigated with water at room temperature. When watering ficus, it is important to monitor the condition of the soil, watering the plant if necessary. In summer, more frequent moisture is required, but the earth should dry out sufficiently between waterings. A prolonged excess of moisture entails rotting of the roots and, as a result, a rather rapid death of the flower.

Pruning and transplanting

Many types of ficus are grown at home, creating a plant of any shape with pruning and appropriate care.

The soil for planting needs slightly acidic. The composition should consist of equal parts of peat, sand and leafy soil. Every spring, young plants require a transplant, and adults only if it is necessary to increase the capacity.or updating the top layer of soil to a more nutritious one. This is done through transshipment.

Reproduction

For breeding ficuses, several methods are used to obtain young shoots: cuttings, propagation by leaf or air layering.

The most common ficus propagation method is cuttings, which are carried out in the summer. The most suitable for this are stiff shoots at the age of 1-2 years, which are cut in the spring, before bud break, preferably from the top of the stem. Cuttings 10-15 cm in size are freed from leaves, immersed in water to wash off the milky juice separated at the cut point, and then dried.

ficus tree

Benjamin and Rubbery tree ficuses take root well in water, but take longer to root. The washed cuttings are lowered into a vessel with water, covered with a film and set aside in a warm place, which has a beneficial effect on germination. The roots appear after 30-40 days, and after the first leaves appear, the cuttings are planted in flower pots.

Ampel varieties are easier to breed because they take much less time to root. Some species are easier to propagate by air layering.

Regardless of the variety, ficus reproduction is quite simple to carry out at home, the main thing is to follow the recommendations listed above.

Home care

Caring for homemade ficuses is quite easy - it is enough to provide optimal temperature and light conditions, properly feed andwater the plant, spray the ornamental crop to moisten it and periodically treat it for pests.

The most important thing in care is regular watering - a guarantee of decorative attractiveness and a he althy state of the plant. For this purpose, settled or melt water is used, while avoiding both drying out and oversaturation with moisture.

Ficus with variegated leaves

Broad-leaved ficuses are watered occasionally, while small-leaved varieties with shallow roots dry out faster and need more frequent watering. In summer you need more moisture, and in winter less. Ampel species should be watered constantly and abundantly.

Like any plant, ficuses are fertilized with mineral complexes and organics. In winter, the flower is at rest and does not need to be fed.

Feeding plants has a positive effect on the exterior of the crop, but it is important to remember that the fertilizers used must correspond to the seasonality and stage of development of the perennial.

In nature, ficuses can reach gigantic sizes, in home breeding their growth is restrained and forms a crown.

Dust accumulates on the huge leaves of the plant, so it is advisable to sometimes wipe them with a damp cloth or wash them.

These simple rules on how to care for a ficus will come in handy when breeding an indoor flower.

Ficus diseases

When growing an ornamental perennial, it happens that the appearance of the plant worsens, growth slows down, the ficus falls off. What to do in this case? Initially, it is necessary to find out the reason for this phenomenon andimmediately begin to eliminate it in order to save the flower.

There are several reasons that can lead to yellowing, wrinkling and falling of leaves: limited watering and prolonged drying of an earthen coma; excess moisture, especially in combination with low temperature; lack or excess of nutrients; stressful situation due to repeated movement of the ficus; placement near heating devices; drafts; lack of adequate lighting. Frequent changes in light can cause leaf color to change.

Insufficient care, weak immunity and frequent waterlogging of the soil contribute to the defeat of ficus by pathogenic bacteria and fungus. The flower loses its decorative effect, fades and sheds leaves, foci of infection from the roots spread to the stem. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to cure the plant, it will have to be thrown away along with the flower pot, because the fungus can remain in the soil for a long time.

Ficus varieties

Pests and control methods

Even when grown indoors, ficuses can be affected by parasitic pests: scale insects, spider mites, aphids, thrips, mealybugs.

It is possible to determine that a plant is affected by a scale insect by the presence of convex yellow-brown spots on the leaf plates. Feeding on the juice of the plant, small insects leave a plaque, which becomes the main cause of the development of soot fungus. At the first sign of the appearance of pests, it is recommended to clean the leaves with a slightly warm soapy solution, followed by processingdrug "Actellik" every 7 days for a month.

The result of the activity of spider mites - a thin cobweb under the leaves, indicates the infection of the plant with this parasite. The pest reproduces very quickly, feeds on plant sap, which leads to wilting and leaf fall. One of the options for the fight is the use of folk methods: frequent spraying of the plant, treatment with a soap or garlic solution, rubbing thick-skinned ficus leaves with alcohol. You can quickly destroy the spider mite with any insecticide-acaricidal preparation.

Mealybug - a parasite, covered with a white powdery wax coating, appears when the air in the room is dry. It sucks the juice of the plant, which slows down its growth. Keeping the flower clean, timely removal of dried leaves, regular spraying will help to avoid damage by this pest. If such a nuisance nevertheless happened, you need to immediately clean the ficus from the worms and their cotton-like secretions. This procedure is carried out with a soft brush or cotton sponge moistened with soapy water or alcohol, then sprayed three times with tobacco or garlic infusion, cyclamen decoction or alcohol tincture of calendula. Also, the above-ground part of the plant is treated with an interval of 7-14 days with one of the listed preparations "Confidor", "Fitoverm", "Biotlin", "Tanrek".

Thrips - the main carrier of viruses, can quickly infect other plants, settles mainly on the inside of the leaf blades, which subsequently crowd and turn yellow.To destroy thrips, first treatment with a soap solution is performed, and then sprayed with solutions of insecticides "Pyrethrum", "Aktara", "Aktellik" and "Tanrek.

You can grow any of the indoor species on your own, the main thing is to know how to care for the ficus.

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