Apple crown diameter: description of species, varieties, sizes and features

Apple crown diameter: description of species, varieties, sizes and features
Apple crown diameter: description of species, varieties, sizes and features
Anonim

Apple tree is one of the most common trees in Russia. The Russians are very fond of this tree and actively plant it in summer cottages, adjacent territories, etc. As a garden crop, the apple tree has existed for a very long time. Apple trees can reach fifteen meters in height, that is, they can be quite tall trees, and grow in the form of a shrub. In general, there are many types of apple trees.

How many varieties are there?

In nature, there are up to fifty varieties of this plant and, accordingly, our summer residents know a lot of varieties. Here are some of them: papierka, melba, white filling, Moscow pear, dream, mironchik, scarlet anise, b altika, beauty of Sverdlovsk, Ural bulk, "Antonovka aport", "bogatyr", "veteran", "cherry", "he alth", "amazing", "dwarf", "Kuibyshev", "lobo", "Moscow" "winter", "short", "eagle”, “Oryol woodland”, “Tatar ranet”,"northern sipan", "start", "student", "cliff", "anniversary of Moscow", etc. And this is only a very small part.

Well, a very impressive list, agree?

What is the main difference between varieties?

The main difference between varieties in the period of ripening and the specifics of further storage of fruits.

One of the most famous varieties among gardeners is "papirovka". The size of the tree is medium, the variety is not susceptible to major pests. However, during the rainy season, "papier" is prone to scab. Harvest begins to appear in the fifth year after planting, the fruits ripen in August. Apples differ in that they spoil very quickly (shelf life is no more than two weeks).

Mironchik is no less popular. This variety is frost resistant. The apple tree is quite high, with an extensive crown. You can harvest in August, apples can lie for about one month. Store them in a cool, dark place.

After the gardener has decided on the choice of apple variety, you can start planting the plant. It must be remembered that in order to get a good harvest every year, it is necessary to feed on time, cut off unnecessary branches in order to obtain a crown of a certain shape, notice diseases in time, and carefully process them. Pests are very active.

During the period of tree care, it is very important to monitor the diameter of the apple tree crown. Crown modeling is important because if you miss this moment, then gradually the tree will grow from a cultivated variety into a wild, respectively, the fruits will be much smaller and more sour. Apples at the orchard apple treeshould be smooth, juicy, without external damage and signs of disease. A feral apple tree gives rise to sour, bitter-tasting fruits, smaller in shape with a damaged surface. The wild fruit is visually different, it is immediately noticeable.

Apple crown

At first glance, for a novice gardener, the formation of crown width is a very difficult question. The gardener faces several important questions:

  1. Firstly, which apple tree is this or that crown size for?
  2. Secondly, what are the pruning rules for crown modeling?

The branches on the tree must be distributed like tiers, then the load from the fruits will spread equally to all branches (excluding the possibility of breakage), the branches will not block each other from the sun, the whole plant will receive it. Apple trees must be planted at least four meters apart from each other, otherwise they will not fully grow and develop.

Here are some simple rules:

  1. Do not allow the formation of a dense crown, otherwise the yield will be low.
  2. Do not allow the formation of a large crown, then the fruits will be inside the entire leafy volume and not receive the required amount of sunlight. The strength of the plant, intended for the growth of fruits, will be spent on the growth of foliage. The result is a poor harvest.

Why is it necessary to prune trees?

Indeed, this is a very important question. The fact is that in the process of photosynthesis, sugar is produced, which should be evenly distributed to the development of fruits andthe tree itself, namely branches and leaves. Constant pruning helps to maintain a balance in the distribution of nutrients.

Besides, if the branches are not cut, the apple tree will become very tall, which will greatly complicate the harvesting process. Many gardeners use a long stick, at the end of which, like an octopus, there is a trap with tentacles and a net. This device allows you to pick fruits from the very tops, preventing them from falling, because fallen apples are damaged, lose their appearance and reduce their shelf life.

It is also necessary to form a crown because, under the weight of fruits, the branches of an apple tree can break off. The shorter and more magnificent the crown, the less chance of a break. Tall branches are more susceptible to damage (both from the weight of the crop and from a gust of wind).

Taking into account the diameter of the crown of an apple tree is also important because the care of trees with a natural crown is much more difficult (it is higher, more susceptible to pests and bark disease).

Any variety of apple trees favorably tolerates the pruning process and the gardener will not harm the tree, but only help. The crown should be trimmed annually in the spring, and the procedure is carried out before the start of the sap flow process. Sap flow is the process of moving water together with useful substances inside the plant. There are ascending (from the roots to the crown) and descending current (from the crown of the tree to the roots).

How to properly form the crown of an apple tree: the mechanism of action

The formation of the correct diameter of the crown of an apple tree occurs in stages, in four years. At each stage, gradually formedtier of branches.

Before a beginner gardener, there is always one main question: “Where to start?” An annual plant should be pruned. The first most important task is to determine the bole zone. What is a stem and where is its zone? The height of the trunk is the length of the tree trunk from the soil itself to the place where the branches begin to diverge and the skeleton of the plant begins to form. So, this distance should be about half a meter. Another thirty centimeters are visually measured from the bole zone. For convenience, you can put a note on the tree trunk. Just don't ruin the bark! From this point begins the first tier of branches, which consists of three branches. All others are cut off.

The next year, the gardener improves the already formed tier. The second year of care should also begin in the spring before sap flow. For a whole year, branches will appear on the stem, they should be removed. The first tier consists of three branches, and they should be modeled. The first branch is left about fifty centimeters long, the other two, located above, are cut at the same level. Therefore, it turns out that all three branches are at the same level, but they are not the same in length (one is longer, and two are shorter). Moreover, the growth of one (the longest) should be directed in one direction, and the other two - in opposite directions. Where there was a cut on the central post last year, new branches may appear. They are strongly worth deleting as they are competing branches. Branches are modeled on the three main branches. Their length should not exceed thirty centimeters. Such short branchesfruit well and abundantly.

Third year of modeling. It is necessary to form two more new skeletal branches, they must be formed fifty centimeters from the branches of the first tier, that is, there must be at least fifty centimeters between the new branches and the branches of the first tier. Other branches are removed, since in this case they are, as already mentioned, competing branches. If one of the branches is higher than the other, then you need to bring everything to the same level.

The fourth year is the final stage. Only one new branch is formed (at a distance of forty centimeters from the main tier).

Experienced gardeners believe that the formation of the diameter of the crown of the apple tree is completed. And they do not recommend touching the crown for two years. After the expiration of this period, only branches that have grown from the central trunk are cut. Do not allow abundant crown growth. It should not exceed two and a half meters in height.

Apple "berry"

berry apple tree

Before figuring out what crown diameter a "berry" apple tree has, it should be classified as a species. It belongs to the small-fruited type of apple trees (the fruits are very small, only one centimeter in diameter). For the inhabitants of the middle zone, this will seem like a serious drawback, but for the population of Buryatia, on the contrary. A significant advantage of this type is that it is very resistant to low temperatures, withstands frosts down to minus 56 degrees.

This variety is characterized by unpretentiousness and high yields. It is widely used in landscape design, since this apple tree is undersized andblooms for a long time. The diameter of the crown of the "berry" apple tree almost corresponds to the height of the plant (an adult tree can reach up to ten meters in height).

Apple "Siberian"

Siberian apple tree

Apple "Siberian" or "Siberian" also refers to frost-resistant varieties. Undersized, the fruits are not very pleasant in taste: bitter and sour. The diameter of the crown of the "Siberian" apple tree is quite significant, since the crown is quite sprawling. It is actively used for landscape design: it is especially decorative during flowering and fruit ripening. The apple tree is very durable, the cycle of its life, attention: three hundred years! Here is the longevity! This tree is very fond of light, moderate moisture consumption, not capricious to the quality of the soil. The apple tree is unpretentious, so it is not surprising that it is actively growing: the diameter of the crown of the "Siberian" apple tree is about six meters.

Apple "common"

apple tree

This apple tree is quite tall. The variety is resistant to frost. The life form of the "ordinary" apple tree is oval, the crown has an oblong shape. It grows for a very long time before it begins to bear fruit, the crop yields only for 8-9 years. The fruits are juicy, sweet, yellow in color with a greenish tint. Apples do not last long and spoil quickly. Crown pruning starts from the second year. Gardeners recommend removing every new third branch. In addition, annually, every spring, anti-aging pruning should be carried out. This is exactly how, according to professionals, the diameter of the crown of the “ordinary” apple tree is formed.

Apple tree"lobo"

Apple Tree Lobo

This variety of apple trees is very unpretentious in care. Differs in graceful blossoming, and also beautiful color and a form of fruits. It is recommended to grow in warm regions of the country, since the variety can withstand temperatures as low as minus thirty degrees. However, it is drought tolerant. The first harvest can be obtained after 3-4 years after planting, again, if the tree is properly cared for and pruned regularly.

"Lobo" favorably tolerates pruning, which can be carried out from the first years of life. It is extremely important to observe the required crown diameter of the lobo apple tree, as this will prolong the fruiting period of the tree. The apple tree gives a good harvest up to seventeen years, then the volume gradually decreases.

Apple "Melba"

Apple tree Melba

Apple "melba" low. The variety is extremely painful, very unstable to scab, therefore it needs regular feeding and prevention. The first crop gives after five years of growth. The fruits ripen by the end of summer, are distinguished by high transportability, a red blush of the fruit and a sweet and sour taste. Annual pruning is required. The gardener should form a small diameter of the crown of the Melba apple tree, in shape it should resemble an oval.

Apple tree "white filling"

Apple tree White filling

One of the most popular among many varieties of apple trees is "white filling". Unfortunately, it is prone to scab infection and can often get sick. To avoid this, it is recommended to constantly process the tree. The apple tree belongs to the trees of the middleheight. The diameter of the crown of the apple tree "white filling" is about six and a half meters, the crown is rounded in shape. The fruit ripens in August, but is stored for almost three months. The color of the apple is white, without veins, the flesh is sweet and sour in taste.

Apple "home"

Apple tree Home

This variety name combines various hybrids of fruit apple trees. This variety is also durable, like the "Siberian" apple tree: it has been growing for about three hundred years. It is possible to land singly or in groups. When planting in groups, it must be taken into account that the distance between plants is at least four meters.

The diameter of the crown of the "domestic" apple tree is about six meters. The apple tree has a spreading crown, medium in size. The tree is very decorative during flowering or fruiting, exudes a delicate aroma. The leaf shape is very successful, so this variety is actively used in design. According to the description, the shape of the apple tree leaf is round.

Antonovka apple tree

Apple tree Antonovka

Antonovka combines several varieties. The variety is winter-hardy, withstands frost quite well, but is unstable to pests and diseases of the bark, leaves: it often suffers from scab. For the first harvest, Antonovka needs to grow for three or four years. The apple tree is quite high, the crown is wide and sprawling. The diameter of the crown of the Antonovka apple tree is approximately six meters. Experienced gardeners recommend sanitary pruning, during which old, dried branches are cut off. The fruits ripen by early August, they are yellow in color with a greenish tinge,the pulp is juicy, the taste is sweet and sour.

Nedzwiecki apple tree

Nedzwiecki's apple tree

This is an ornamental variety of apple trees, so it is actively introduced into landscape decoration. A bit of history… While traveling in China, the famous Russian scientist, biologist V. E. Nedzvetsky, noticed a delightful apple tree. It bloomed with an indescribable pink color and was all covered with flowers. Naturally, he immediately took samples of this apple tree. His colleague Georg Dik grew the tree in Kazakhstan. So the Nedzvetsky apple tree appeared in Russia.

The apple tree is frost-resistant and is grown in different regions of Russia. A very interesting fact is that at the very beginning the apple tree resembles a pyramid in shape, but subsequently the branches bend under their weight, and the crown takes the form of a ball. The diameter of the crown of the "Nedzwiecki" apple tree is about six meters.

So, as you know, there are a lot of varieties of apple trees. Before choosing any variety for yourself, gardeners recommend reading about it. Each type of tree is specific in its development, requires special planting rules, type of fertilizers and processing, and is unique in the method of crown formation, susceptibility to a particular disease. Take care of the plant, and it will respond with gratitude: it will give a good harvest.

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