Cherry belongs to heat-loving fruit trees, but gradually specially bred cold-resistant varieties are being developed in areas north of the middle zone, in the Urals, southern Siberia.
Many varieties of this plant can be divided into three types, depending on the type of pollination of flowers: cherry self-fertile, partially self-fertile and self-fertile. In the northern regions, where there are few plantings of this fruit tree, and during the flowering period the weather is unfavorable for pollination, self-pollinating cherries are grown. Popular self-fertile varieties of cherries: Garland, Brunette, Cinderella, Youth, Chocolate. These plants are bred specifically for small farms, household plots with small areas.
Cherry self-fertile variety Brunette has juicy, tender, dark red fruits, sweet and sour taste, medium size. The trees are low, not always reaching 2.5 meters, which is convenient for harvesting.
The early ripening varieties, which are especially appreciated in the northern regions, include the self-fertile cherry variety Garland. In addition, her fruits are large, bright, dense, but juicy. Tastesweet and sour. They tolerate transportation and storage well.
Cherry self-fertile variety Cinderella ripens in mid-summer; its fruits are light red, oval, medium-sized, sweet-sour. The valuable qualities of this variety include frost resistance, high yield (up to 15 kg per tree).Shokoladnitsa self-fertile cherry also ripens in July, the trees are undersized, but with a dense crown. The fruits are medium in size, weighing 3.5 g, very dark, dense, giving sweet and sour dark red juice. The pit of the cherry is easily separated, which facilitates the processing of the crop. Begins to bear fruit in the 4th year, gives high yields, tolerates frost well, is not afraid of drought.
If you decide where to buy trees, the answer is unequivocal - in well-established nurseries and botanical gardens. Only there you will be offered varieties that are guaranteed to be suitable for growing in your area. Cherry begins fruiting after 4 years, which means that an unsuccessfully selected seedling will negate your four years of work.
You can control the choice of seedlings yourself. Annuals usually have a root length of 20-30 cm, a stem diameter of up to 12 mm and a length of up to 120 cm. It is very important that the root system is not damaged and dried. During planting, mineral and organic fertilizers are introduced into the pit. Re-feeding is carried out after 2 years, and it is especially important during the fruiting period.
At first cutyou need to remove shoots that extend at an acute angle, select branches for the skeleton and cut them to 50-60 cm, intermediate branches - up to 25 cm. You do not need to cut those that extend at right angles. The conductor remains 20 cm above the side branches. Pruning is done every spring, and damaged, superfluous branches that shade the crown are removed. during fruit formation.