This useful vegetable crop is grown on their plots by almost all summer residents. The vast majority of them prefer varieties of late cabbage. This choice is easy to explain. It is the varieties of winter cabbage that are ideal for long-term storage, pickling, pickling.
These varieties are united by one feature - resistance to the first frosts in autumn. Moreover, some of them retain their marketable appearance and taste even with fallen snow. Of course, the heads of cabbage are not stored for a long time in such conditions, so it is best not to experiment on the fruits and harvest on time.
Varieties of late cabbage are distinguished by excellent indicators of keeping quality and transportability. The forks easily endure storage throughout the winter and even into mid-spring. Today, breeders have bred such varieties of winter cabbage that lie even until the new harvest.
Grow late cabbage from seeds, which are sown in mid-March for seedlings. Naturally, this must be done in a greenhouse. But in April they can be planted in the ground(under film cover).
Before planting, dry cabbage seeds must be prepared. Only in this case, you can count on a he althy and plentiful harvest. Cabbage seeds must be placed in water (temperature +50 ° C), incubated for 15 minutes. Then, literally for 1 minute, the seeds are dipped in cold water. After that, they are immersed in a solution of trace elements (sold in all gardening stores) for 12 hours. After this time, the seeds are thoroughly washed under running water and placed in the refrigerator for a day.
So, the seeds are prepared, and it's time to sow them in the soil mixture. As a rule, it consists of equal parts of peat, soddy soil and sand. Humus in this case (as well as old soil from the beds) is not recommended, since the black leg virus can persist in such soil. It can easily undermine all your efforts, and you will not grow quality seedlings.
Before planting the seeds, the soil mixture should be well shed. To do this, you must use potassium permanganate. Planting material is sown in narrow rows - the distance between the holes should not exceed one centimeter, and between the furrows - about three centimeters. Seeding depth – 10 cm.
Beginner gardeners need to know that late cabbage seedlings need to be fed. The first foliar feeding is carried out after two true leaves have appeared on the bush. To do this, dilute 0.5 teaspoons of trace elements with complexfertilizer in one liter of water and spray the seedlings.
The second feeding is carried out before hardening seedlings. In this case, potassium sulfate (a tablespoon) + urea in the same volume, dilute in ten liters of water. One bush will need about a glass of composition.
Planting late cabbage
At the end of April, but better in early May, you need to start preparing seedlings for transplanting into open ground. Twelve days before planting (usually varieties of late cabbage are planted after May 10), seedlings are gradually accustomed to the sun - greenhouses are opened for several hours, shelters are removed from the film.
If the air temperature at this time is low, you should not rush to planting - in adverse conditions, late cabbage can release an arrow with seeds, which means that you can forget about the harvest. Late cabbage varieties are planted in open ground when there are at least 5-6 leaves on the seedlings. Between the bushes there should be a distance of at least 70 cm, row spacing - 60 cm. And one more important rule: late cabbage should not be planted on beds where radishes, beets, radishes, tomatoes and other cruciferous species grew before it. Favorable predecessors include cereals, potatoes, carrots, legumes and cucumbers.
Late cabbage loves abundant watering. She especially needs it in August, when heads of cabbage begin to form. After the seedlings are planted, they are watered every two days. The average water consumption is eight liters per square meter of soil.
Later the cabbage will bedispense with weekly watering at the rate of thirteen liters per square meter. After each watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil (to a depth of up to 8 cm) under the bushes.
The first time this procedure is carried out twenty-one days after planting. In the same period, the plant is fertilized with a solution of mullein. Hilling should be repeated every ten days.
Experienced vegetable growers recommend that during the cultivation of cabbage, regularly dust the forks and the soil under them with wood ash. This is both an excellent top dressing and will help scare off pests: slugs, cruciferous flea, whitefish, aphids and cabbage fly. At least a glass of ash is used per square meter of soil.
And now we will present you the best varieties of winter cabbage. The first on this list will be the brainchild of Belarusian breeders - Mara. Its vegetation period is 170 days. During this period, the weight of a head of cabbage reaches four kilograms. The fruits are rounded, deep dark green in color, with a pronounced waxy coating. This variety keeps well until the beginning of May.
In addition, it is resistant to damage and rot. Mara cabbage is ideal for sauerkraut.
Late universal variety of white cabbage. Harvest, subject to the necessary conditions, is stored for at least eight months. Experts, as well as many experienced summer residents, noting its healing properties, recommend growing this variety for those who have small children. It is extremely useful for growingorganism. Retains useful properties and taste when stored in a room with a temperature of +8 degrees.
Great late cabbage variety, ideal for long term storage. Many summer residents note that heads of this variety reach a weight of up to ten kilograms. The head is very dense. It is slightly flattened and has an oval shape. Does not require complex special care during the growing season. Moscow late cabbage is perfectly stored - until the new harvest.
The variety is very popular in the middle lane. Hybrid of Russian breeders. Ripens about 180 days. The weight of a head of cabbage does not exceed four kilograms. Keeps up to eight months. But with these seemingly not too high rates, it has excellent taste. The variety is distinguished by sugar content, fork density, crunchiness, but this sauerkraut is especially good in sauerkraut.
Amager cabbage is considered a recognized leader among late varieties, ideal for sauerkraut. The forks are large (up to 5 kg), juicy. These are excellent indicators among analogues.
Heads of cabbage are distinguished by a rounded, but slightly flattened shape and high density. Their upper part is painted in a greenish tint, the inner cut is snow-white. This grade is perfectly stored in winter time and is well transported. Its main feature is resistance to fungal diseases and root rot. On average, the growing season lasts about 160 days. Amager cabbage loves abundant watering andcomplex mineral fertilizers.
Of all the variety of late varieties of cabbage, this Dutch hybrid is one of the most precocious. It takes 125-130 days for the complete formation of a head of cabbage. During this short period of time, a dense fork weighing up to five kilograms grows. The variety is resistant to pests and fungal diseases. Perfectly transported over long distances. Keeps up to five months. During the formation of the head, the timing of the introduction of organic matter and watering should be observed. It is advisable to apply mineral fertilizers at the very beginning and on the thirty-fifth day after planting seedlings.
Hybrid, refers to late-ripening varieties. It can be grown in all regions. It develops slowly, has a dense structure and a hard head of cabbage. A feature of this variety is undemanding care. Summer residents sometimes joke that this cabbage grows like a weed, almost by itself. In addition, it develops perfectly under the most adverse weather conditions and perfectly retains its shape without cracking at all. Breeders did a great job on the resistance of this variety to many diseases (late blight, blackleg, fusarium) and pests (aphids, caterpillars, cruciferous flea).
And in conclusion of our conversation about late varieties of cabbage, I would like to dwell a little on the proper storage of the culture. After all, it is not enough to know how to grow a good crop. It's a shame if, due to improper storage, it will be ruined.
Late varietiesCabbage is harvested in autumn, in early October. Heads of cabbage intended for long-term storage should not be subject to frost. Frozen forks are not stored for a long time and start to deteriorate rather quickly.
You should pay attention to the method of pruning late varieties: the head is cut so that a stalk is at least three centimeters long, as well as two covering leaves. These forks can be stored in a cool place, stalk side down.
The ideal option is to store cabbage in a suspended form. In this case, the heads of cabbage are not cut, but pulled out along with the root and stalk. They are tied in pairs with twine and hung in a cool room. It is necessary to monitor the appearance of diseased and fading leaves and get rid of them in time.