Primrose flowers belong to the Primrose family. In nature, they can be found in Africa, Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. In spring, this flower is one of the first to appear from under the snow. In Greece, primrose has always been considered a medicinal plant. And the Germans in ancient times believed that primrose is the key. In Europe, this plant appeared in the 16th century. But the primrose flower is especially loved in England. There are annual exhibitions of these primroses. This is a stunning sight and a must see.
The family of these flowers has about five hundred species. It is considered one of the most numerous among other primroses. Primrose feels most comfortable near water, near the banks of rivers and streams.
As for the description of appearance, perhaps we should start with the leaves. The primrose has straight lanceolate leaves, which may vary from species to species. Their shades range from greyish-green to dark green. The flowers are most often solitary, located on stems without leaves. Inflorescences can be different, it all depends on the chosen variety. The plant also has fruits - spherical or cylindrical polysperms. At home, the primrose flower can also be grown in the garden.
If you plan to sow primrose, then bury boxes in the ground in advance. Due to the fact that the seeds of this plant quickly lose their germination capacity, they should be planted immediately after harvest. Otherwise, young flowers do not need to wait.
However, store-bought seeds can be planted in a different way.
Landing is carried out in early February in a special substrate. It is not necessary to deepen the seeds, it is enough just to spread them over the surface. The composition of the soil should include:
- Two pieces of leaf ground.
- One piece of sand.
- One piece of sod land.
Seeds are laid out in such a way that there are no more than five seeds per square centimeter. The container where the planting material was planted should be wrapped in dense polyethylene and sent to the freezer for three or four weeks. The temperature should not be higher or lower than -10 degrees. This is a kind of stratification. After this time, the containers must be placed in a bright place, but so that direct sunlight does not fall on them. After a while, the first shoots will begin to appear. Make sure the soil does not dry out.
Seeds germinate best at an air temperature of +18 degrees.When the first seedlings begin to appear, you need to open the film for a while so that they begin to harden. After two weeks, young sprouts may be completely without shelter.
But that's not all there is to know about the primrose flower. How to care for him to ensure the most comfortable conditions - later in the article.
In flowers, primrose planting and care requires a lot of endurance. The fact is that seedlings grow very slowly. After planting, seeds can be transplanted into open ground only after two years. All this time, primrose flower care requires careful care. First of all, this is a pick. As soon as you notice that the seedlings have begun to grow strongly, you need to thin them out with tweezers. And, of course, do not let the soil dry out, water regularly.
Primula (photo of flowers - later in the article) loves well-lit rooms very much. Only it is impossible that direct sunlight falls on its tender leaves. Therefore, the home primrose flower feels good on windows that face west or east, so that during especially hot hours the sun is on the other side. You can try to place the pot on the north side if the windows are large enough.
For the primrose flower, home care also includes controlling the air temperature in the room. This is due to the fact that the plant not only does not like the scorching sun, but also does not tolerate high air temperatures. Therefore, the owner must ensure thatthe room where the primrose grows, the temperature was not higher than +20 degrees. And during the flowering period, the temperature must be reduced by another four degrees. This is necessary in order for the plant to please its bright flowering for as long as possible.
A primrose flower (photo - in the article) home care provides for special watering. It is necessary to ensure that the plant receives enough moisture. If the top layer of the soil begins to dry out, you need to water a little every 2-3 days. Slightly increase watering during flowering. During this period, you do not need to wait a few days. You need to water the plant as soon as the topsoil begins to dry out. During this period, the plant spends a lot of energy on flowering, which means it needs more moisture.
Water must be prepared in advance. Choose a separate container in which you will defend the water for each subsequent humidification. And be careful, the liquid should only get under the root and in no case on the leaves. Otherwise, it may lead to their decay. If you are not sure of your caution, then it is better to pour water into the pan or use the immersion method.
The indoor primrose flower in care does not require special procedures for moistening the air or leaves. She is quite satisfied with the moisture that she receives with regular watering.
When growing a primrose flower in planting and care (photo of the plant - in the article), you must not forget about fertilizers, even if you are a houseplant. Doing soneed twice a year.
First time - at the end of June. You will need organic fertilizers, for this purpose you can use a solution of water and bird droppings. And the second time - in the middle of August. The second time you will need 0.1% aqueous ammonium nitrate.
Do not forget about pruning, although the primrose does not have large shoots, this process should not be ignored. The main task of the grower is to cut off or pinch off faded flower stalks in time, since they not only block the possibility of developing the next flowers, but also take away the vitality of the plant. And, of course, any yellowed or dried leaves need to be removed immediately.
Every year, when the plant stops flowering, it needs to be repotted. To do this, you do not need too nutritious soil, this can be seen from the characteristics of the plant's fertilizer. The most suitable would be a mixture of components such as sand, turf and hardwood, as well as humus. Each component must be contained in the substrate in equal parts. There is another option for the composition of the soil: three parts of compost and one part of peat and sand. If you decide to grow a soft-leaved primrose, then it will need less acidic soil. For her, the composition will change a little:
- sand - one piece;
- turf and coniferous land - one part each;
- deciduous land - two parts.
In this way, those plants that have only one outlet are usually propagated. Prepare a small container and fillits peat, and pour a layer of sand (2 cm) on top. From an adult plant, you need to separate the leaf, on which the petiole and one live bud will also be present. The sheet plate itself is cut off by 1/2, but so that no torn edges are obtained. For this, it is better to use well-sharpened scissors or a knife.
When planting a cutting, make sure that it enters the ground at a slight angle, and the kidney must look up. The cutting should be deepened by 1 cm. The containers where the cuttings were planted should be taken to a bright room, where the air temperature would be no lower and no higher than 18 degrees. Keep the soil from drying out too much and water regularly.
The rooting process will take quite a long time and only after 80-100 days they will be well fixed in the ground. After this time, you can safely plant the cuttings in new pots with an updated soil composition:
- 4 pieces of leafy soil;
- 2 parts of humus;
- 1 piece of sand.
By this time, at least three true leaves appear on he althy seedlings. And after six months, the primrose flower, home care described above, will show you its first flowers.
Dividing the bush
The division of the bush takes place only after the end of flowering. When all wilted flowers are removed, you need to put the pot in a shady place and periodically moisten the soil so that even the top layer of soil does not begin to dry out. When after a while the stems begin to grow,adult bushes are divided into several parts. And after that they are planted in pre-prepared boxes, without deepening too much. Then young bushes need to be covered with glass and placed in a well-lit place with warm air.
The gardener's task is to make sure that the plants grow. This will be a signal that it is time to transplant them into separate pots. And after a month, you can choose larger pots, with a diameter of 13 centimeters.
Don't forget to remove old leaves. Young bushes need to be fertilized with mineral fertilizers.
After working with this plant, be sure to wash your hands well. Since quite often there are cases when, after contact with primrose leaves, various irritations appear on the skin of people. This is especially true for those who have increased skin sensitivity. And to play it safe, you can just protect your hands by wearing rubber gloves.
Diseases and pests
Quite often, gardeners encounter such a problem as yellowing leaves. There are several reasons for this:
- The air temperature in the room where the flower pot is located is too high.
- Humidity is too low.
- Water-watered soil can cause such an ailment.
- Grower can overdo it with fertilizer.
- Using fresh water.
To cure the plant as soon as possible, you need to analyze your own actions and eradicate the cause of the problem.
Another serious disease that worries many gardeners is grayrot. Such a disease overtakes a primrose in cases where water gets on its leaves during irrigation or the air humidity in the room in which the plant is located is too high. And also the owner must ensure that between waterings the top layer of earth in the pot has time to dry out.
At high air temperatures during flowering, inflorescences may wither. To get rid of this, you need to slightly lower the air temperature in the room, at least for the flowering period.
Dry air, insufficient watering, or high air temperatures can cause the plant to drop buds.
The main enemies of primrose among insects are aphids and spider mites. And the increased air temperature increases the risk of their occurrence.
When growing garden primrose, it is recommended to treat the plant with Bordeaux liquid. It is not only a means to combat pests and diseases, but also a good way of prevention. In the spring, home flowers can be treated with a one percent solution. But for this it is better to take them out into the open air or to a non-residential premises.
Properties of primrose
We presented the primrose flower, photo, care and cultivation rules, and now we need to remember about its beneficial properties, which are quite a lot.
In primrose - a high concentration of manganese. There are quite a lot of vitamins in the ground part, and the roots contain a large amount of essential oil, saponins and glycosides. Primrose leaves are quite often used in cooking inas ingredients for various salads, stir-fries and soups. Primrose is very useful in the spring, when the body is weakened and needs vitamins. This is due to the fact that this plant contains a lot of ascorbic acid and carotene. In terms of the amount of the latter, by the way, primrose can even compete with carrots.
You can eat not only fresh parts of the flower, but also dried ones. They contain no less vitamins. You can prepare a decoction of the leaves and roots of primrose, such a folk medicine is especially effective for diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Also, this plant is very effective as a diuretic. Doctors often recommend drinking various infusions for those who suffer from diseases of the kidneys and bladder. She also uses it for rheumatism as a good pain reliever.
Those who suffer from insomnia, prone to nervous breakdowns, are recommended to use infusions of primrose leaves. They can also be drunk and gargled with sore throats and various diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Tincture from the root of the primrose flower is good for bruises and external hemorrhages.
As you can see, almost every part of the flower is a component of a particular drug. Moreover, we are talking not only about traditional medicine.
Women should use these drugs with caution in early pregnancy, and if possible, it is better to avoid them altogether.
Primrose is also prohibited in case of individual intolerance to this component.
In any case, before use, you needdoctor's consultation.