Clematis is a flowering ornamental plant that is incredibly popular with flower growers. The culture is good for vertical gardening. Beautiful plants bloom with large bright flowers. It is enough to see clematis once to fall in love with it forever. But in order to grow a crop, you need to know all the nuances of care. Clematis are very demanding, and therefore require a reverent attitude.
A little about the plant
Before starting a story about what kind of care clematis needs, it is worth mentioning the variety of forms of culture. The plant belongs to a large buttercup family. In the wild, clematis grows in the temperate zone in a subtropical climate. In total, there are approximately 300 varieties of culture.
Climbing vines and ornamental shrubs are represented in the genus Clematis. Gardeners generally prefer to grow plants with liana-like stems, they use arbors, verandas, pergolas, smallarchitectural forms. The plant feels great in open ground and in winter gardens.
Different types of clematis differ significantly from each other in the structure of the root system, flower size and other features. Among the variety of plants you can see forms with large and small flowers. The color of their petals varies from white to dark purple. Very often the corolla has a multi-colored color, colored spots or contrasting stripes. On average, the height of the plant reaches 2-4 meters. And the diameter of the flowers reaches 15 centimeters.
Classification of clematis
The variety of clematis varieties has led to difficulties in crop classification. Florists now use a more simplified form of classification according to several criteria.
Clematis differ in flower size. If among horticultural crops preference is given to large-flowered forms, then in nature, natural varieties usually have small flowers.
Small color shapes
Among the small-colored forms, it is worth highlighting the tangutika. Plants of this species reach four meters in height. Such clematis bloom from mid-summer to mid-autumn. The plant has yellow bell-shaped flowers. Lianas are frost-resistant. The Tangut species can withstand temperatures down to -30 degrees.
Another representative of small-flowered plants is paniculate clematis. This form has the largest length, which can be 11 meters. Clematis begin to bloom in the second half of summer. Milky white flowers are smalldimensions - no more than three centimeters in diameter. The creepers of the plant are completely covered with inflorescences.
The hybrid variety was obtained by crossing in the nineteenth century. A large liana has a developed root system, which easily holds the ground part. Flowers appear on new shoots of the current year, and therefore winter pruning of clematis is allowed. Caring for plants of this variety is no different from other varieties. Clematis flowers are purple in color and reach 15 cm in diameter. Planted vines near the walls of houses and powerful supports to provide support for clematis. Plant care consists in choosing the right place for planting. Culture prefers bright areas of the garden with good protection from the winds.
Plants of this variety reach a height of five meters. But at the same time they do not require winter shelter and are easy to care for. Photos of Vititsella clematis allow you to appreciate their beauty.
Flowers appear on the shoots of the current year, so the vines are heavily pruned for the winter. The size of the flowers and the intensity of flowering fully depend on the amount of top dressing.
Climbing shrub reaches three meters in height. Flowers are formed on the branches of last year already in early spring. Many varieties have an amazing aroma. For the winter, the plants are slightly pruned so as not to disturb future flowering.
Choosing a landing site
The care and reproduction of clematis is simple if you know all the features and requirements. The first thing you needpay close attention is choosing the right landing site.
If you want clematis flowers to please you in the future with lush flowering, care should begin with preparing the place where you plan to plant your plant. Most of the plant varieties have a heavy ground part. Therefore, it is necessary to plant a crop near fences, walls, outbuildings or supports. If there is nothing suitable on the site, then you can plant a plant in the place where you can build supports.
Clematis do not tolerate strong winds and do not like drafts. This is worth remembering if you plan to provide the plant with proper care. Clematis (photo is given in the article) can even die in a draft, especially when it comes to a young, fragile plant. Therefore, it is worth choosing a secluded quiet place for culture.
Clematis prefer moist soil, but at the same time they do not like wetlands. It is preferable to place plants in sunny, calm areas. In regions with a hot climate with bright sun, the flowers and leaves of the crop can get burned. Florists believe that the ideal place for planting is a garden area facing east.
You can plant clematis in the spring with the arrival of steady heat - in late April or early May. Pits for planting should be prepared in advance. If it is planned to plant clematis in a plot with poor soil, then a nutrient mixture should be added. It can be made from a mixture of sand, peat, compost and gardenearth. In addition, dolomite flour and superphosphate can be added to each hole. Enriching the soil will facilitate further care. Clematis in open ground are planted by making drainage. At the bottom of the pit, a drainage layer of expanded clay, fine gravel or broken bricks is poured. A prepared nutrient mixture is poured over the expanded clay, and a seedling is placed on it, which is covered with soil from above to the first internode. It is not recommended to fill the near-stem circle to its full height; a recess should be left up to 10 cm deep. Mulch is poured into it from above, leveling the area. Caring for clematis in the spring consists in installing supports. It is better to put them at the time of landing. This will facilitate further care.
If you plan to plant several plants, then you must leave a distance of at least one meter between the bushes.
In autumn, clematis can be planted in open ground only in regions with a warm climate. The planting scheme does not differ from the spring one. True, it is supposed to use a heater on top of the soil. After wintering, the seedlings are opened, removing 10 cm of soil. During the season, the recess is filled with soil, doing it gradually. This will allow easier development of new shoots that grow from underground internodes.
How to grow clematis from seeds: planting, care, photo
Variety seedlings take root well when planted. But their cost is quite high. Therefore, gardeners very often attempt to grow a plant from seeds. Experts note that the process is not easy, because it requires enougha lot of time.
Large seeds germinate for a long time. Seedlings can be expected up to 8 months. Seeds of Jacqueman and Duran varieties germinate for a very long time. Large seeds hatch for a long time and often unevenly. It is recommended to sow the seeds immediately after harvesting them.
Medium-sized seeds germinate slightly faster, from two weeks to four months. The most friendly seedlings can be expected from small seeds that are sown in March. For this, only fresh seed is used. It is believed that germination lasts up to four years, but subject to a certain temperature regime (+10…+23 degrees).
You can speed up the process of seed germination using pre-soaking. The seed material is soaked for ten days, replacing the water daily. After the seeds are placed in a mixture of peat and sand. Pots with crops are best placed in a greenhouse.
Seeds or seedlings?
Experienced gardeners recommend opting for ready-made seedlings, as this will facilitate further care. Growing a clematis flower from seed is incredibly difficult. Gardeners prefer hybrid forms that have the greatest beauty. Varietal clematis must be grown only from seedlings.
How to care for clematis after winter
Spring care for clematis consists of removing the top of the soil. This must be done immediately after the cessation of frost. The technique is used in order to simplify the process of germinating stems. In thatcase, the appearance of the first flowers can be expected at the beginning of summer.
In the spring it is necessary to start watering clematis. It is enough to moisten the soil once a week. Do not flood the plant too much until it reaches a height of 50-60 cm, since at this time the vines are most vulnerable to decay. As the clematis grows, you will have to add soil until the height of the hill at the base reaches 10-15 centimeters.
In addition, plants grown from seeds are planted in the ground in spring.
How to properly water clematis? A description of care would be incomplete if you do not remember what watering should be. In the summer, the plant must be watered at least twice a week. When the air temperature rises to +28 degrees, the number of waterings should be increased up to three times.
Do not forget about the peculiarities of moisturizing exotic varieties of clematis. They need to be more carefully cared for. Varieties such as President, Countess of Lovelace and Niobe should be watered more frequently. Such clematis have large and bright flowers, which indicates their origin. However, it is worth remembering that excessive waterlogging can cause root rot.
It is important for every grower to get abundant clematis blooms. According to reviews, care and cultivation of a crop is impossible without top dressing. They provide bright blooms. An organic concentrate intended for strawberries is applied to the soil twice a month, whichshould be diluted according to the instructions. In addition, experts recommend watering the plant once a month with milk of lime. This tool can be replaced with dolomite or flour diluted in water. This composition is safer. Plus, it's easier to cook. Plants of exotic varieties with the advent of summer must be fertilized with copper concentrate. It is bred in a ratio of 1 tbsp. l. on a bucket of water.
Pruning clematis is possible in several ways. The choice of method depends on which group a particular variety belongs to. There are two groups of plants: A, C and B. Clematis species A care consists of pruning drying and weak shoots, since large flowers are formed on perennial shoots.
Plants of group B are pruned more seriously, damaged stems are removed completely. Clematis species C are completely cut to the level of rhizomes. In this state, they hibernate, and such varieties do not need strong shelter.
Plants of groups A and B require some preparation for winter and care. In autumn, clematis must be prepared for frost. For the winter, creepers should be covered with suitable material. The shoots are pressed down to the ground, and covered with dry leaves from above. Shelter can be made from special materials or pine branches.
Clematis must use supports. Without them, plants simply will not look beautiful. If you do not use home reinforcements, then you can purchase them in specialized stores. Growing, clematis becomeheavier, so the supports must be made of durable material.
Methods of reproduction
We have already mentioned that clematis are sometimes propagated by seeds. In addition, young plants can be obtained with the help of summer and autumn layering. To do this, young shoots are pressed to the ground. After some time, roots appear on the layers, after which they can be separated from the mother plant and planted in open ground.
Propagation by dividing the bush is another way to get young clematis. It can only be used on plants no older than six years. It will be much more difficult to work with older bushes, because they have a powerful root system, which will be very difficult to separate. Clematis is dug up and cleaned from the ground, after which it is divided with a pruner.
To obtain layering in October, leaves are removed from the shoots, weaved into a bundle, and then placed in grooves with peat. Sprinkle top with soil. For the winter they are covered with dry foliage and spruce branches. With the advent of spring, the landing site must be watered frequently. After germination, the soil must be mulched with humus and peat. By autumn, some of the plants will be ready for transplanting. Dig up young clematis with a pitchfork so as not to damage the roots. Layers can be laid in the summer, but then it will be very difficult to save them in the winter.
In the spring, you can pin the shoots of last year at the node point. To do this, use pots of peat, which are buried in the ground below ground level. As the seedlings grow from above inpots fill the ground. By autumn, good seedlings are obtained from the shoots.
Clematis, like other crops, are prone to fungal diseases. The appearance of the disease can be judged by the loss of tissue elasticity. The causative agents of diseases primarily affect the root system, so it is important to follow the rules of agricultural technology. Otherwise, its violation leads to the appearance of diseases. The first signs of ailments can be seen in the spring. In May, you can cut off the damaged branches, and then shed the roots of clematis with a two percent solution of Azocene or Fundazol. Heavily damaged plants should be removed along with the earthen clod. And the place of growth of the culture is treated with the above solutions. The preparations "Azotsen" and "Fundazol" are good for combating powdery mildew and gray rot. Sometimes clematis is affected by rust, which is a fungal disease. The disease is manifested by the appearance of red pads on the foliage and shoots. In the future, the green dries and deforms. To combat rust, use a 1-2% solution of Bordeaux mixture. You can also use Oxychom.
In the middle of summer, gray necrosis may appear on the shoots and foliage. You can get rid of the disease with a solution of copper sulfate.
Instead of afterword
Given the popularity of culture, many flower growers dream of having beautiful flowers on their plot. Growing clematis is not so difficult if you know all the intricacies of the process. Minimal care, proper planting and preparation for winter will allow you to get a wonderful flowering plant on the site. We hope that our article will help you understandthe issue of reproduction and care of clematis.