Foundation is an underground or ground foundation for a building. What is the classification of foundations? Allocate brick, stone, wood, concrete options. Let us dwell in more detail on the features of each type of foundation, since the quality and reliability of the structure under construction depends on the foundation.
Parameters for classification
The foundation is a supporting base, it is designed to transfer the load of the building to the base platform. The bases are divided into two types: natural and artificial. The first group includes lands located under the foundation. They have a certain capacity, ensure the stability of the structure during shrinkage.
The artificial foundation has no bearing capacity. To increase its strength, a rammer is used, the soil moisture is reduced, and the base is transferred to another place.
Classification of foundations by design features involves the allocation of the following types:
The tape base is laid under the walls of the building or under concrete supports.
The columnar foundation is laid to the required depth for light structures.
Pile type is used at a high level of groundwater, as well as when it is necessary to build a building with increased load. Currently, it is actively used in the installation of low-rise buildings on the water, the construction of houses on swampy soils.
Slab solid foundation is used on soils with low bearing capacity. This type is used for additional waterproofing when constructing the foundation for the basement.
By construction type
Classification of foundations on this basis involves the allocation of several groups of foundations:
When choosing one of the options, take into account the maximum loads that the walls and roof will exert on the foundation.
Let's take a closer look at the types of foundations. The classification puts the strip foundation in the first place. This option is considered optimal for the construction of a private house. The classification of foundations of this type is regulated by the norms of SNiP (3.02.01) according to the followingfeatured:
According to the first sign, prefabricated structures made of reinforced concrete factory blocks, monolithic options (they are poured into the formwork at the construction site), brick or rubble structures are distinguished.
According to the depth of laying, strip foundations are divided into two groups:
strip foundation of insignificant depth (0.4-0.7 m);
deep (below freezing level).
In individual construction, a monolithic version is used.
What is the classification of pile foundations? To begin with, we will give a brief description of this version of the foundation. These are underground structures that have an elongated shape. They are arranged as separate elements or as a group, installed obliquely or vertically. Some of the piles are driven directly into the ground. Also, this version of the foundation is installed by screwing, pressing, immersing, stuffing.
Each option assumes its own installation technology, material of manufacture, operating conditions. The classification of piles and pile foundations involves the determination of their functional affiliation regarding the increase in the bearing capacity of the soil. Such bases are used in the construction of residential buildings, country houses.
What are the types of pile foundations? Both classification and applicationbased on several parameters:
nature of work;
Depending on the design features, for construction, you can choose one-piece or composite, made of several sections, piles. They can have a pointed or blunt bottom end, as well as additional extensions at various levels.
By size, piles are divided into hard (short) and long (medium hardness).
The following pile shapes are currently available: polygonal, round, pyramidal, trapezoidal, cruciform, conical, hollow, solid.
Materials for making piles: concrete, reinforced concrete, wood, metal. Recently, a combination of several materials has been increasingly used, which significantly increases the technical characteristics of piles.
By the nature of the work, support and hanging options are distinguished. When installing piles, they use driving, screwing, stuffing, indentation.
Features of choosing piles
When choosing the type of piles, it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of the soil, the height and structure of the house. For example, for areas with permafrost, solid railway piles without transverse reinforcement will not work.
It is important to first study the foundations: classification, requirements, features, pick upthe best option, and only then proceed with the construction of a new structure. The safety and performance characteristics of the structure being created directly depend on the correct choice.
Pile-racks - pillars that pass through soft soil, based on its layers. Hanging piles - shafts that transfer the load from the building to the ground through the side surfaces.
To immerse the pile foundation to a certain depth by indentation or driving, special equipment is used: pile drivers, hammers, other shock or vibration installations. The following options are distinguished:
If ramming types of piles are used in construction, wells are initially drilled or hollow pipes are driven into the ground. The resulting hole is filled with concrete mortar.
Depending on the quality of the soil and the chosen technology, the shell is either left or removed after the piles are installed.
Features of piles
For the manufacture of screw piles, metal or reinforced concrete is used. They consist of a barrel and helical blades, which are located on a special shoe-tip. The column is hollow, as well as filled with concrete. The blades can be welded metal, cast steel, plastic.
Pine or spruce wood is used as a material for wooden piles. Sometimes the basis for woodenpiles becomes larch, oak, cedar. Straight-barreled logs are chosen for piles, the bark is first removed from them. In case of significant deepening, wooden piles are spliced in 3-5 elements.
Reinforced concrete piles are produced at factories, and monolithic structures are built directly at the construction site (according to the project). The reinforcement is poured with concrete, taking into account the climatic features of the region.
Pipes, rolled profiles, welded structures are used for metal piles. To protect against atmospheric corrosion, they are treated with coal tar, bitumen, and special anti-corrosion compounds.
The pile foundation consists of a system of grillage and piles, which are the connecting and distributing elements of the load of the structure. The supporting beams or slabs that connect the piles will support the ground elements of the building under construction.