The redevelopment of their homes, including panel houses, is now being done by many property owners. Such a procedure usually improves the apartment not only in terms of comfort, but also aesthetics.
One of the main operations performed during redevelopment is the arrangement of openings in the walls. Of course, such work must be done with strict observance of all the required technologies and only after agreement with the relevant authorities. An improperly equipped opening in the load-bearing wall of a panel house can cause warping, cracking or even collapse of its critical structures.
Where to do
Depending on the function performed, the walls in city apartments can be:
Making openings is allowed in both of these types of enclosing structures. The load-bearing walls in the apartment perform a very important task - they support the floor slabs of the overlying floor. do in themThe law allows openings, but not in all places. It is possible to break through such enclosing structures only if this procedure does not weaken the building structures. If the opening in the load-bearing wall of a panel house is made with violations, this will certainly affect the performance and service life of the entire high-rise building. For such illegal redevelopment, apartment owners are punished with a fine.
Punching an opening in a non-bearing wall, of course, cannot lead to any sad consequences for the structures of the building. However, such an operation is still officially considered a redevelopment and, accordingly, requires registration. In this case, it will be necessary to make changes to the scheme of the apartment. That is, remove the blocked doors from the drawing and mark the new ones.
Opening in the bearing wall of a panel house: approval
You can see exactly what functions this or that wall in the apartment performs in the diagram in the data sheet. The load-bearing building envelope in this drawing will be marked with thick lines. Punching an opening in a non-load-bearing wall can be done without a preliminary visit to the controlling organization. In this case, after the completion of work, you will only need to contact the BTI to make the necessary changes to the registration certificate.
Before you start organizing an opening in the load-bearing wall of a panel house, you need to collect all the necessary documents and send them to the Housing Inspectorate (for residential apartments) or to the prefecture (for non-residential premises). Papers for obtaining permission for redevelopment in this case will be neededthe following:
- technical passport of the premises;
- conclusion on the possibility of arranging the opening;
- remodeling project;
- permits from Rospotrebnadzor, DEZ, fire services.
In exactly the same way, such a procedure as expanding the opening in the load-bearing wall of a panel house should be carried out. Such an operation, of course, can also cause weakening of the structures of the high-rise building.
Who to contact
The conclusion about the possibility of punching a new opening is given by the organization that once designed the house. If such a company does not already exist, you can contact any other company of a similar specialization that has the appropriate license.
In order to receive a redevelopment project, engineers will need to be called to the house. Specialists will take measurements and give the necessary recommendations regarding the possibility of arranging the opening, as well as a suitable location for it.
Sometimes apartment owners break through new doors in the load-bearing walls of panel houses without prior approval and registration of this procedure. If such illegal redevelopment in the apartment is subsequently revealed, the property owners will definitely be fined. Most likely, you will have to pay a small amount for an unauthorized doorway in a load-bearing wall, including a panel house. However, if the housing commission reveals the fact that the changes made to the layout of the apartment caused the weakening of the structure of the house, the owners will be required to returneverything in its place. That is, the money for repairs in this case will be wasted.
Moreover, it may turn out that the owner of the apartment will not be able to properly correct the consequences of his rash actions on his own. In this case, he will have to contact the organization that was engaged in the design and construction of the house. Builders, on the other hand, can ask for a very large amount for the restoration of the wall, or even refuse to do this work. In the latter case, according to the law, the apartment can even be put up for auction.
An already existing opening in the load-bearing wall of a panel house: how to legalize
It is necessary to coordinate such redevelopment in advance. Legalizing an existing opening is a rather complicated and time-consuming procedure. In this case, the apartment owners will also have to contact the building designer or any other licensed company of the same specialization. Next, you will need to follow the instructions given by the engineers. Most likely, the specialists will oblige the owners of the apartment to either lay an opening in the panel load-bearing wall, or perform any work to strengthen it. In any case, a fine will be issued to owners of real estate who have carried out illegal redevelopment.
Rules for arranging openings in panel houses
Such redevelopment is being carried out in apartments of high-rise buildings, of course, in compliance with certain standards. It is technologically, in principle, not difficult to make an opening in the load-bearing wall of a panel house. However, before this, one usually has to perform quite complexcalculations. First of all, it will be necessary to determine the stress vector of the building envelope. This work is usually done by experts. But in order to find out whether such a redevelopment is possible at all and whether it is worth contacting a design organization, an approximate preliminary calculation, of course, can be done independently. To do this, you will need to use special tables or a special online program on the Internet.
In most cases, engineers, among other things, require apartment owners to reinforce new openings in panel walls. It is necessary to perform such a procedure using a corner, for example, 100x63x8 mm. The channel, according to existing standards, is categorically not allowed to be used for this purpose.
Also, according to SNIP, it is necessary to equip openings at a distance of at least 1 m from adjacent walls or existing doors. When punching, in no case should columns and pillars or joints between floor slabs, beams, etc. be affected.
The width of doorways in the load-bearing walls of standard-plan panel houses, according to the regulations, cannot be more than 90 cm. Only in some cases, the housing commission can give permission to increase this parameter to 120 cm.
Required tools and materials
As soon as permission from the housing commission is received, you can actually start punching the wall. It is better, of course, to entrust the execution of this work to specialists. But if you want to make an opening in the wall, guided by the data of the engineerrecommendations, you can do it yourself. The regulations do not prohibit this in any case.
However, of course, you need to make an opening in the wall of a panel house with your own hands with strict observance of all the required technologies.
You can, of course, make an opening in a panel wall in the old fashioned way. That is, use a puncher, a hammer and a sledgehammer for this purpose. But still, it is better to spend a little money and purchase special equipment for diamond cutting to perform such work. When using such a tool, the cut along the entire contour of the opening will turn out to be perfectly smooth, which will save money and effort on finishing it.
In addition, the tools will need to be prepared:
- building square.
From the materials you will need:
- cement and sand;
- painting grater;
How to break through the opening correctly
With the help of diamond cutting, such a procedure is carried out easily and quickly. Before proceeding with the punching of the opening, of course, markings must be applied to the wall. This work should be done strictly using a building level or, even better, a level.
There are several technologies for punching openings in panel walls using diamond cutting. But most often, unnecessary parts of the panels during such a redevelopment are removed gradually - in small segments, which are subsequently taken out ofapartments. In some cases, the opening can be cut out and immediately completely in one go. When using this technology, a remote piece of the wall is first laid by several people, for example, on car tires. Further, in order to take out the panel "rectangle" cut out in this way from the apartment, it is broken into pieces with a hammer or a sledgehammer.
Strengthening the opening
This procedure, when performing redevelopment, as already mentioned, is supposed to be done using different-shelf corners. Channel bars are not suitable for this purpose because they do not fit too tightly to the edges of the opening. That is, it will not work to make sufficiently reliable supports using such material. The procedure for strengthening the opening in the bearing wall of a panel house is usually carried out with the following trim:
- cut the corner, according to the parameters of the opening;
- welding a one-piece reinforcing structure of two posts and a jumper;
- install the frame in the opening and firmly fix it with anchors.
Reinforcing structure assembly rules
The elements of the reinforcing frame are welded together using steel wedges. Before installing the reinforcing structure, metal heels are attached to the floor slab of the house. Fixing such supports under the racks also relies on anchors.
The broken and reinforced opening at the final stage must, of course, be given an aesthetic appearance. After the frame from the corners is installed in place, all the voids between it and the panelthe wall should be sealed with cement mortar.
Sometimes ordinary interior doors are installed in new openings in apartments. But quite often they are simply left uncovered. There are only two options for finishing such openings:
- standard - no design changes;
- arched - with configuration change.
In the first case, the opening is usually finished using white PVC or "wood-like" PVC panels or plaster. Both methods allow you to make the wall quite aesthetic.
Arched openings in the load-bearing walls of a panel house (as well as in non-bearing ones) are usually arranged in rooms when gypsum boards are used for their decoration. In such sheets, the top of the opening is cut in the form of an arc. From below, this curved section is hemmed with a bent strip of drywall.