Skillful craftsmen working with wood are able to create incredible beauty products from it: furniture, interior items, etc. Among the many ways to give gloss to handmade structures, there is one fairly simple method to emphasize all their advantages - staining. The main advantage of this treatment is that the composition of the stain does not cover the surface, but penetrates into it, highlighting the texture of the fibers.
What is stain?
Wood stain (or stain) is a special composition with which almost any tree can be given the desired shade. It makes the material more beautiful and aesthetic. The market for these compounds is very large - it includes powders, ready-made solutions, as well as liquid concentrates.
It is used for a kind of painting of wood, however, the essential difference between stain and paint is that such a coating has a more pronounced moisture resistance and light transmissioncharacteristics. Processing the material with such a solution provides it with protection from moisture, decay processes, insects and does not affect its natural texture. Thus, with the help of staining, ordinary wooden furniture and interior items can be turned into luxurious pieces that look like expensive wood products.
However, it should be borne in mind that not all wood after processing will look natural and natural, since one may be ideally suited for this type of processing, while the other is not. In order to achieve the desired result, it is necessary to carefully read the information indicated on the labels of the compositions, it most often states which type of material should be worked with.
Types of stains
All compositions for staining wood, as well as paints and varnishes, are divided into types, depending on their purpose: those that are used internally and externally. The last of these include pigments that do not fade as a result of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Currently, stains are sold in the form of pastes, powders and ready-made mixtures.
Depending on the composition of stains, it can be:
- with whitening effect.
Oil stain for wood makes it possible to give the material any color or shade from the entire palette known to man. This is achieved by mixingdyes in a soluble mixture. Often, in order to dilute such stains, craftsmen use the White Spirit solvent. In practice, wood stains have shown themselves to be the most unpretentious type of coating, since they are applied very evenly, do not lift the fibers and dry quickly.
Work with such a solution only if the material is not infectious. An oil stain for wood, like any other, will not help bring a tree that is prone to rot or damage by insects into proper shape. It can protect wood from harmful processes, but it is not able to “cure” damaged material.
The oil in this stain makes the treated surface not only environmentally friendly, but also easy to use. Due to the ease of use, it is recommended for beginners in carpentry to use oil stains for wood, because they are almost impossible to somehow spoil the product.
After treatment with an oil solution, the surface is best covered with furniture oils or wax.
Types of oil-based stains
There are two types of oil stains: impregnating and pigment.
Pigment compositions are applied to the surface of a wooden product with clean soft swabs made of fabric. After a certain time, it should be erased. It is not necessary to withstand the stain for a certain time, it should be based on how rich the shade of wood is needed.The longer you hold it, the darker the material will become. However, it is recommended to remove the stain a little earlier than the desired effect is achieved, since the part of it that has penetrated the wood fibers may darken for some time. The downside of this treatment is that it tolerates direct sunlight worse and if the tree is not covered with sealant after it, it will fade quickly.
Impregnating oil stain for wood is more difficult to apply, so it is not recommended for beginners. Insufficient skill in application may result in color streaks and smudges.
Each type of oil stain for wood has its advantages and disadvantages, which become less noticeable with the advent of experience, since the result of processing directly depends on the skill of the handler.
The composition of the oil stain for wood provides for the presence of:
- drying oils or oils;
- colour (dye).
The basis of each composition is drying oil or oil. White spirit most often acts as a solvent, since its effectiveness has been proven by many years of practice. And the color of the baize is selected based on what color you need to get later.
The article presents the process of working with oil stain on wood (pictured).
In order to make an oil stain for wood with your own hands, you do not need any special skillsand knowledge. You just need to follow the instructions prescribed by the masters, who in practice have tested "home-made" beyets and guarantee their results.
As the basis for the future stain, you can use the purchased drying oil (and you can choose even from inexpensive ones), or you can make it yourself. To do this, boil vegetable oil (flaxseed is better) in a water bath. In order to reduce the subsequent stickiness of the composition (on a dried surface) and speed up its drying, turpentine is added to the oil, based on the fact that a quarter liter of turpentine must be taken for 1 liter of boiled oil.
Throughly mixing the ingredients, we get drying oil. Next, it is necessary to add a solvent to it - per 1 liter of the mixture 200 ml of solvent liquid and approximately 20 ml of color. In fact, the amount of dye is determined during the mixing process and brought to the desired shade by adding it in small portions.
In general, the best option is to first prepare small volumes of solutions, using a minimum amount of ingredients and each time try the resulting stain on the surface of some board. The dye is also recommended to be initially mixed with a small amount of base, and only then pour it into a container with drying oil.
In cases where the wood prepared for staining is from coniferous trees, then it should be deresined before painting, that is, the surface should be freed from resin. Also, the preparation process necessarily includes careful grinding. Even smooth at firstthe surface should be polished, since after staining the wood will show all the slightest bumps and defects, which will greatly spoil the aesthetic appearance of the product. The cleaned wood should be degreased - treated with a sponge previously soaked in solvent.
Oil stain for wood is best applied with a brush or roller. In the process of processing, in no case should you save the product, as this will lead to uneven coloring with stripes or spots. During the painting process, you may feel that the shade of the wood as a result will be darker than necessary. This will not happen if, after a couple of hours after application, the solution that has not been absorbed into the surface is carefully wiped off. And in cases where the wood after drying turned out to be lighter than expected, you can paint the surface again. In fact, the drying speed also depends on the concentration of the stain itself, if it is more concentrated and thick, then it will take longer to dry.
Oil-based wood stain dries in a few days. Whether it dries quickly or not depends on the temperature at which the treated surface is located.
In order to avoid the appearance of stains on the material after the stain has dried, you should carefully prepare it for painting, carry out the staining itself in good faith and spend the amount of time that is necessary, without missing any nuances.
Exact adherence to all these recommendations will allow high-quality staining of wood even at home, not only for a professional, but also for a beginner.
The ease of application and the quality of the end result has been the main reason oil stain for wood is one of the most used wood stains.
Based on the feedback from woodworking people, the quality of most oil stains is very good. But there is one drawback - you should carefully select the desired shade when staining the product, since with a lack of experience, repeated application of the composition can ruin the work. The main condition is that the stain must be applied sufficiently "fat" and carefully distributed over the surface with a brush. This process takes time, but the result is excellent. Oil compositions very beautifully emphasize the structure of wood.
Nevertheless, you should take into account the type of wood before you start processing, otherwise you can not only get the wrong result, but also completely spoil the appearance of the product. So, for example, when processing beech, oak and other hardwoods, oil stains are applied immediately, and after processing, the excess is removed with a soft cloth. Before applying the agent to soft wood (pine, spruce, linden, etc.), the surface should be covered with a transparent primer, and after that, covered with a stain. Excess should also be removed with a cloth. Then the shade of the surface is very uniform and is in no way inferior to products from stores.