A house that has a basement has a number of advantages. The most significant of them is the increased area. But it is also not without certain shortcomings. For example, the need for earthworks and an increase in the cost of project implementation. If there is a desire to create a foundation with a basement, then this requires not only knowledge of a certain building technology, but also the acquisition of more building materials. Let's see how it is created, regardless of whether such a structure is being built independently or someone decides to resort to the services of a contractor.
Let's consider which base (tape or plate) is better to choose, as well as many other nuances. In addition, houses with a basement require a certain deepening. And at the same time, it is necessary to take into account the properties of the soil, the level of groundwater. As a rule, such calculations are carried outprofessional builders. And only after that the construction of the house begins. After all, the calculation of the basement foundation allows you to make in favor of a certain option. If you try to do without it, you can be very disappointed with the result. If we talk about popular solutions, then a strip foundation with a basement has well-deserved fame. This is due to the fact that it can be created from various prefabricated structures, building materials, and even in the form of a monolith. But it is limited in the load it can handle. In addition, he distributes it unevenly. Which can be dangerous due to the specifics of the design of load-bearing walls or on certain types of soil.
If a large and heavy house is planned, then it is more likely that after all the necessary calculations, it will be necessary to make a reinforced tiled base. So, if there is a problematic soil, then it is almost guaranteed that such a decision will have to be made. The difference between these types of foundations lies in their price, materials used, and work technologies. So, if you have to build on heaving, clay and peat soils, then you can’t do without a tiled base. Their danger is that they are unstable and have a high content of groundwater. Because of this, natural shrinkage and periodic movement occur. Otherwise, the construction will not last long and problems may arise even at the stages of construction.
If you plan to build a basement in a house with a strip foundation, then you need to make sure that the conditions are the most common and will not bring certainproblems. This is important for simple structures as well. And if the conversation is about a house with a basement, then this moment should be given special attention.
About the stages
Features of construction depend on the soil in the area of work and the selected project of the house. But despite the presence of such differences, the stages always have a certain degree of similarity. For example, if a tiled base is being erected, then this is typical:
- Preparing and calculating the cost of work, purchasing materials and ordering equipment.
- Digging a pit, removing soil.
- Creating a pillow of sand and gravel under the base.
- Pouring cement screed.
- Installation of hydro and thermal insulation.
- Establishing the foundation itself.
- If necessary, create a drainage system.
- Hydro and thermal insulation of the basement.
- Finishing a year or two after major work was completed.
As you can see, building a foundation for a home with a basement is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance, although not as easy as we would like.
Preparation and first stages of work
Construction is a sphere of human activity. And here, as elsewhere, the old proverb “victory loves preparation” applies. In this case, it is necessary to obtain a good result. You should start by making accurate calculations of the foundation, estimating the budget and drawing up a plan. The cost of creating a structure is taken into account taking into account the necessarybuilding materials, ordering equipment, trucks and wages for hired workers. Then earthworks begin. If a reinforced concrete base is selected, what is required for this material is taken into account. Changes may be made to the original work plan. In this case, it is very important to have time to fill the base in one day. After all, any delay leads to a decrease in the strength of the structure being created.
Trucks and equipment are needed at the first stages. And saving on this item is not recommended. So, trucks are needed in order to take out all the excess land. An excavator will help you dig a pit faster. So, without it, this business can drag on for several weeks (if workers are used) or even months (provided that only the owner of the house will work). Although, much here depends on the soil, but it is better, nevertheless, not to neglect such a good opportunity to speed up the process. But you don't have to take everything out. It is recommended to leave a certain part of the soil in order to fill the foundation. It is usually built below the freezing level of the soil. Initially, the contours of the building to be created should be outlined on the ground.
Then the excavator starts its work. It is desirable that all excess soil is not stored nearby, but immediately loaded onto trucks. Fortunately, the speed of the excavator will not allow them to stand idle. The resulting bottom must be cleaned and tamped manually. Well, now everything is ready to create the structure.
Creating the foundation
If notif you want to do all this yourself, you can always contact a special company that will create a foundation with a turnkey basement. But this requires money. So, after everything is ready, it is necessary to equip the lower part of the base. To do this, several layers of sand and gravel are poured. Each of them must be carefully rammed. This is necessary in order to avoid the formation of air voids.
Then the cement screed is poured. It is extremely necessary because of the performance of two important roles. First of all, she is engaged in leveling the territory on which the foundation is located. Secondly, it is needed for heat and waterproofing, without which a foundation with a basement (if it is created for a long time, and not for a year or two) will not do. When the screed hardens, it is necessary to lay an additional layer of insulation on it. After that, you can already begin to pour the foundation slabs under the house with a basement. This stage can be divided into several parts. First of all, the formwork is installed. Without this extremely important element, the design of most basements with a basement cannot do.
What is it? This element looks like a shaping base, thanks to which the desired shape of concrete is created, which is subsequently maintained throughout its solidification. For greater strength, the formwork is reinforced. To avoid problems, this should be carried out in accordance with the existing calculations. For a strong connection, it is recommended to use rebar extensions one meter long.
Coming to completion
In cases whereif the weather is hot, then the drying concrete should be watered. This allows you to compensate for the evaporating moisture, which is necessary for the hydration of the material. It usually takes two to three days for concrete to dry. With a close occurrence of groundwater, it is necessary to pay attention to the creation of drainage. How it's done. For this, special pipes are laid below the level of the base of the house. And at the last stage, a blind area is created (a waterproof coating around the building). This approach allows you to protect the foundation of a house with a basement from sedimentary water.
For greater strength, the plinth should also be covered with a layer of hydro and thermal insulation. After the foundation for a house with a basement has been completed, you should wait a year or two, and finishing work can be carried out. Then it's time to clad and paint the plinth. This is how, in general, a foundation is created with a basement with one's own hands (or with the involvement of hired workers). It's not as simple as one would like it to be. For successful work, you need to have certain experience and knowledge. Therefore, if there is no self-confidence, then it is better to turn to the services of a professional team. Experts will help you decide what type of foundation is needed, make all the necessary calculations and deal with the most difficult steps.
About specific features
A general scheme of how to build a foundation for a house with a basement with your own hands was considered. But, as you know, the devil is in the details. And if such an unusual design (with a basement) is of interest, thencannot be done without considering them. First of all, you need to decide why you need to do all this.
If you plan to place a pantry in the basement, then this is one thing. Installing a heating boiler is another. The placement of a utility room (or a place to rest) is the third. Although the appointment will not radically affect the entire design, it can change individual nuances. For example, you need a pantry. In this case, care must be taken to keep the room dry, cool, and a certain amount of natural ventilation can be allowed.
For this, hydro- and thermal insulation is carried out according to all the rules, but one hole is left that connects with the environment. At the same time, it can be blocked by various heat-resistant materials to maintain a certain temperature level (or without them, if the external conditions are quite satisfactory). Whereas when planning a room for relaxation or a study, this option may be unsatisfactory. And the best solution would be to use artificial climate controls.
The easiest option is to create ventilation that will be connected to the interior of the house. But this requires a good calculation of the basement foundation, because such cavities can become a weak point. In this case, you can pay attention to artificial systems, such as air filtration, ionization, regenerative devices.
Tricks of the trade
If there is a desire or need to work with your own hands, thenit is better to transfer some details to specialists for execution. For example, the development of a foundation project. After all, it is better if experienced professionals do this. But here you can cheat. And when making a foundation for a house with a basement, take information from a project that is in the public domain. The use of such a small trick avoids the occurrence of errors during construction. After all, if they are allowed, then in the future they will result in serious additional expenses.
Directly ideal project, suitable for existing conditions, is unlikely to fall, but the knowledge of mathematics should help to adapt it to a specific building. You should also think about the height of the basement. The fact is that many initially think about creating its height at the level of ordinary living rooms, that is, more than two meters. But in practice, so much is not needed. Yes, and this leads to additional costs.
Therefore, it is recommended to limit yourself to the height of the tallest person, that is, about 1.8 m. In some cases, even this value can be cut (if you plan to create a pantry closet, then 1.5 m can be dispensed with).
Man cannot do without water. But it can also bring inconvenience. So, if the waterproofing of the basement foundation is not carried out satisfactorily, then this leads to mold, dampness, damage to the contents (furniture, things, food). Therefore, it is necessary to take good care of this moment. It is best if the waterproofing of the basement foundation is two-sided: that is, it is carried out both on its outer part and ininternal. Although this approach is quite expensive, it allows you to provide significant protection from precipitation, groundwater, and flooding inside the house. At the same time, it is important what material is chosen to provide waterproofing, how high quality it is.
It's better not to save here, because the terms of its use depend on it. If you choose low-quality waterproofing, encroaching on a low price, this will lead to the fact that money will literally be thrown away. But not everything that is expensive deserves attention. So, for example, one should recognize the dominance of low-quality products that are sold at exorbitant prices, which gives the impression that they are of high quality. But this is a misleading impression.
Therefore, it is better to prepare thoroughly for the choice. For example, if it is determined that it is better to use roofing felt for waterproofing, then you need to decide how high-quality material looks like so as not to choose a cheap fake.
Separate moments during independent work
So, let's say that there is no money for hired builders, but you need to work. In this case, it will not be superfluous to find out a couple of points. Firstly, the depth of the foundation always means the height of the reinforced concrete base being mounted. Secondly, it is recommended to use wooden pegs and ropes to mark the ground. Basing the contour in this way allows you to get accurate and stable parameters.
For this, stakes are driven into the ground, and between themstring is pulled. This is effective compared to other approaches, such as drawing lines with a shovel, as it allows for evenness and accuracy. But in the end, the size of the excavated pit (if a monolithic foundation with a basement is being built) or trenches (for strip structures) should be slightly larger than the structure being created. This is necessary in order to install formwork and spacers. When digging, care must be taken to ensure that the walls are even and do not have protrusions. If this is not done, then the ground will put pressure on the structure and may collapse it.
When working with formwork, slopes and spacers are used to make them stable. But that's not all. As formwork, it is better to use boards with a thickness of two centimeters. On the side that will be in contact with concrete, they should be planed and soaked with water. In addition to the aforementioned reinforcement with meter rods for greater adhesion of various elements, care should be taken to increase the strength of the structure itself.
What is needed for this? Rods with a thickness of 8-12 millimeters of a rounded or square shape will create a reinforcing belt. But this is not the only option. As an alternative, a reinforcing mesh can be used. The dimensions of its cells must be at least 15 centimeters. And for such construction sites, it is better to use concrete grade M500 or higher.
Here it is considered how to make a foundation with a basement. If there is no work experience, then it is desirable, at a minimum, to study very wellthe work of other people. View photo reports, read recommendations, learn from those who have already done similar work. All this will create a reliable and durable design.