There is a basement in almost every private house. As a rule, fresh crops and pickles are stored in it, as well as unnecessary things. In addition, it is often rebuilt into a living space.
Types of basements
Basements in a private house can be of very different purposes, according to which, the underground is divided into several types.
- Cellar. Its functions include storing vegetables and fruits, as well as home-made preparations for the winter period.
- Technical room. It is good to place engineering structures in it, such as water heaters, boilers, filters. This makes it possible to remove bulky appliances from the bathroom or kitchen, and use the usable area to good use.
- Ground floor. Ideal for creating a pool room, gym or office in your basement.
- Workshop. Such a basement in a private house will be just a salvation for those who like to make something with their own hands. If desired, the room can be divided into two parts: a workshop and a warehouse where tools will be stored.
- Basement-garage. This is the most popular option. However, it should be remembered that the main conditionduring construction - to make a convenient entry. Such basements in a private house should be spacious enough, since they will not only store a car, but also carry out minor repairs if necessary.
Building a basement
If a basement in a private house is planned for technical use, the height of its walls should be in the range of 1.8-2.2 m. For a residential basement, the optimal height is 2.5 m.
The order of the work depends on the groundwater. If they are close enough, then, first of all, they form the floor. If they are missing, then you can start building walls.
How is the floor made?
The floor in the basement of a private house is done as follows. They dig a hole with a margin for the width of the formwork, form a sand cushion with the addition of crushed stone. Next, formwork is laid, waterproofing is laid, followed by reinforcement and poured with concrete.
If the walls were built first, the sand cushion is simply poured with concrete mortar. A layer of waterproofing is laid between the walls. In this case, formwork is not needed. The main thing here is to dig a hole.
How to make walls?
During the construction of monolithic basements, the walls are equipped using strip foundation technology. They dig trenches, at the bottom of which sand is poured and formwork is installed. After completion of waterproofing work, a reinforcing mesh is laid and concrete is poured.
If you first need to fill the floor, in this case, the formwork to form the walls is installed only aftercomplete curing of concrete. Otherwise, due to the gravity of the solution, the formwork braces can be pressed into the floor and form completely unnecessary recesses.
Walls can be built with bricks. But the execution of this work requires accuracy, because. it is necessary to ensure that the walls are erected strictly horizontally and vertically. Laying starts from the corner and goes up to the 7th row.It is recommended to lay reinforcement every half a meter in order to give the structure additional strength.
Don't forget the location of the doorway. Lintels are made of reinforced concrete or wood.
Another option for building walls is to use blocks. This method saves a lot of time - a basement in a private block house can be built quite quickly. The only thing that will need to be done is to align each block both vertically and horizontally, as well as along the level of the wall. It is best to start laying from the corners.
When building a basement, even in the driest place, it is necessary to make high-quality waterproofing. It should be remembered that torrential rains and a burst water pipe have not yet been canceled.
If the basement is built of bricks or blocks, it is necessary to secure the gaps between the joints. Waterproofing mastic is applied with a thickness of 2 cm. Additionally, blocks can be processed with mastic. Now the plastering work begins. Stucco mesh is stuffed on the walls and plaster is applied. Proceed to the floor. Coated with bitumenjoints between walls and floor.
This work is necessary to provide reliable protection against moisture of the outer walls and under the floor. The best way to protect the floor is clay compacted at the bottom of the pit, which is covered with a double layer of roofing material and coated with bitumen.Wall protection is done in a similar way. However, first you need to check that the horizontal waterproofing protrudes 15 cm beyond the wall. Next, a roofing material is laid along the entire height of the walls, which should go beyond the surface by about 20 cm.
How to insulate the basement of a private house?
As you know, the basement in a private house is one of the coldest and dampest places, which involves not only waterproofing, but also insulation. In the winter period of the year, thermal insulation will save you from heat loss, and in the hot season from condensation.So, let's look at how to insulate the basement of a private house. Walls can be insulated after 6 days, when the waterproofing mastic dries. The gluing of extruded polystyrene foam boards is done directly on the waterproofing. Bitumen (resin) is suitable for gluing. The slabs should protrude about 40 cm above the ground. Before filling the trenches, it is necessary to cover the insulation with asbestos-cement sheets. You also need to perform horizontal insulation at a depth of 30 cm in the place where the blind area will be located.
The floor is insulated in the same way. Expanded polystyrene, having a thickness of 10 cm, is laid on waterproofing. Then put another layer of heat insulator. To reflect heatinside the basement you can use penofol.
The ceiling also needs protection. Styrofoam, mineral wool, polystyrene foam are suitable for its insulation.
Ventilation of the basement
Well-thought-out basement ventilation in a private house allows not only to protect the room from the appearance of fungi and mold on the surface of the walls, but also to significantly extend its operation time. In addition, air circulation makes it possible to keep food and things stored there well.
Types of ventilation
Basements in a private house can have two types of ventilation, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages:
• natural ventilation;• forced.
This system has been used for more than a dozen years, and at the present time it is also not losing its popularity. Its design is quite simple and does not require significant financial costs.
The operation of the system is based on the existing temperature difference inside and outside the basement, due to which the air moves.
This ventilation system consists of two pipes - supply and exhaust. The exhaust pipe starts from the ceiling and goes to the roof. It provides air outlet from the room. The supply pipe is located on the opposite wall and installed closer to the floor. Its function is to supply fresh oxygen. Thus, the natural ventilation of the basement in a private house maintains normal humidity in the room.
Diameter plays an important rolepipes. The best option is its total diameter of at least 10 cm.
This system is most often used for large basements. The purchase and installation of forced ventilation requires quite significant costs, for this reason, not everyone can afford such a luxury. The advantage of this method is that it makes it possible to bring the microclimate of the cellar closer to natural conditions. The basic principle of its operation is to force the creation of a flow of fresh air using special fans.
Heating the basement of a private house
In order for the basement to be dry and warm, you need to take care of the heating system. The choice of equipment depends on how much heat energy is needed for heating.
Storage of agricultural products
As a rule, this does not require additional basement heating. Most often, the neighborhood with a heated living space from above is quite enough. Low temperatures are not terrible, but it is necessary to prevent minus, as the products will simply freeze. In this case, heating should be arranged. The best option is to connect a fan heater or heater.
Bath, pool or sauna
Premises with high humidity, in addition to heating appliances, must have dehumidifiers installed. For heating, infrared heaters are most often used, which are built into the ceiling,ceilings and walls. In order to obtain additional heat, a warm floor is laid. Tape, which is more unpretentious and durable, is best suited. However, the constant use of a warm electric floor is an expensive pleasure. This is the best option for temporary heating.
If the basement in a private house (photos are given in the article) is equipped as an additional living space, a boiler or stove can be used to heat it. The boiler is most often placed on the whole house, and an additional pipe with a coolant is simply laid underground. Use the following basement heating calculation:
• for heating 50-180 sq. m, a boiler with a capacity of 25 kW is installed; • for heating 200-300 sq. m, a unit is installed with a power of 25-30 kW.
If basements in a private house have an area of up to 200 sq. m, you can install a long-burning stove, and for additional heating make a warm floor. In such basements, a billiard room, a dining room, a gym, a home theater, etc. are organized.
So, despite the fact that the basement requires additional construction costs, a private house with a basement is very practical and convenient.