Inspection of buildings and structures is a procedure for checking structures for a valid technical condition and maintaining operational properties. The assessment is carried out to monitor the condition and identify the need for repairs or restoration work.
What is the difference between expertise and examination
The technical inspection of buildings and structures should not be confused with the examination of industrial safety of buildings. The latter is carried out at facilities associated with hazardous production and is subject to mandatory registration with Rostekhnadzor. It can be carried out only by specialized organizations that have the appropriate license to carry out these works, issued by Rostekhnadzor, and in accordance with certain regulatory documents. First of all, these include the Federal Law "On Industrial Safety of Hazardous Production Facilities". The new edition of the rules for the examination came into force on January 1, 2014. The results of technical expertise are subject to mandatory registration inRostechnadzor. Supervisory authorities oblige to conduct a technical inspection of industrial facilities every 5 years.
Inspection of buildings is an independent inspection of the condition of structures and engineering systems, conducted on a voluntary basis. In fact, it is the collection of information about the technical condition of structures at the moment to determine the need for repair, the possibility of reconstruction or the assessment of the market value of the object.
When to conduct a building survey
The need for a survey may arise for various reasons. The acquisition of any building in the property involves the investment of a large amount. A preliminary survey of the condition of the building will help to obtain an objective understanding of its technical condition and save you from additional waste of time and money in the future.
In this case, it is possible to determine the degree of physical deterioration of the entire building or individual structural elements and establish the actual cost of the object.
Inspection of an unfinished or fire-affected facility
When buying an unfinished object, it is advisable to conduct a thorough examination of the condition of the building in order to determine the further scope of work. After the audit, it will be clear whether the building needs repairs and to what extent, whether reconstruction is necessary, or whether it is cheaper and easier to demolish it and build a new one.
Checking the condition of the structure will allowadequately assess the possibility and need for restructuring or repair. For example, a fairly common practice of buying a house after a fire in some cases may require an inspection of the condition of the building to determine an adequate price and the feasibility of carrying out reconstruction work.
Technical inspection of buildings and structures will help in planning the reconstruction of an unfinished or fire-damaged facility. It will give an objective assessment of the state of the supporting structures, their supporting resource and stability.
Inspection before repair or reconstruction
When planning a reconstruction, modernization of a building or major repairs, it is recommended to conduct a survey of the building's structures. The need for this procedure is dictated by the peculiarities of drawing up a project for these works.
Designing a new building is an easier task than planning work on an existing facility. In this case, inspection and technical inspection of buildings and structures is carried out in order to determine which structural elements of the building need to be replaced or strengthened, what changes will be made in the layout of the premises.
When designing, you can change the functional purpose of the object, expand or reduce the area, depending on the wishes of the owner. A technical survey of buildings will make it possible to determine the level of permissible increase in loads on load-bearing structures whenredevelopment or superstructure of the building.
The resumption of construction and installation work after a long break also requires a preliminary survey to determine the current state of the building and determine the feasibility of continuing work.
Deformation and damage to structures - reason for examination
The appearance of defects or damage in structures, the occurrence of deformation changes during the operation of the building is the basis for a thorough examination.
Construction inspection of buildings is carried out to identify design flaws, violations of building codes and low-quality work. In this case, it is possible to detect marriage, hidden flaws, cases of using low-quality materials.
Survey will help identify the perpetrators of damage to buildings. Damage can occur from the fact that design or construction work was carried out illiterately or negligently, a fire or flood occurred, global repairs were carried out in a neighboring room or building, which led, for example, to deformation of the soil base. A well-conducted survey will make it possible to identify the degree of damage, recover money through the court, and determine the possibility of further operation of the building.
Survey is necessary for buildings damaged by natural or man-made disasters. It will provide an opportunity to assess the condition of the building, the possibility of its further use, the need and amount of repair andrestoration work.
Inspection of buildings - stages of implementation
Full inspection of buildings and structures includes three interrelated stages: preparation, visual inspection and detailed inspection. In some cases, it is sufficient to carry out the first two stages, since the latter involves the use of special equipment and, consequently, additional monetary costs. The need for a detailed examination is determined by a specialist and is assigned if a visual examination could not fully identify all problems.
To examine the structure more thoroughly and efficiently, a thermal imager is used - special diagnostic equipment that captures changes in the temperature level. With its help, you can detect defects hidden from the eyes, perform an analysis of faults in building structures. The operation of this device is based on image capture in infrared rays.
Preparing for building inspection
In the course of preparation, the specialist familiarizes himself with the object itself, design and executive documentation and all available records of previous repair or reconstruction work, as well as previous surveys. The study of documents allows you to obtain information about the time of design and construction, construction technologies, materials used, possible deviations and changes in the project, data on operating conditions and defects and damage that appeared during its operation. In the absence of the necessary documentation, measurements are taken, anddrawing is created. Based on the received terms of reference, a work program is drawn up.
Preliminary examination and detailed examination
Visual inspection includes inspection of the entire building and individual structural elements. In this case, measuring devices and tools are used. A description of the identified problems with recommendations for their elimination is compiled.
If a visual inspection reveals significant damage that reduces the strength of the structure and individual elements, or the impossibility of a complete study of the structures, a detailed examination is recommended. Special equipment is used for it, samples of building materials are taken for laboratory study.
When the technical survey of buildings is completed, a technical report is drawn up, which contains all the data obtained and the results of the survey, recommendations for eliminating the identified problems, possible options for strengthening the structure.