Stairs - construction

Stairs - construction
Stairs - construction
Anonim

As the construction industry develops, so do the designs of stairs. The most widespread in country houses and cottages are wooden structures. Wood is the most technologically advanced and environmentally friendly material for the interior design of residential premises. In the manufacture of stairs, such constructive solutions are used that have been developed by builders around the world during the entire development of human civilization. There are the following types of structures: straight staircase, spiral, with a turn of 90 ° or 180 °. The most common type is marching. The name comes from the fact that the steps were called "stair flights". Mid-flight stairs can consist of one straight section or several connected by a turntable. The rotation just happens to be 90 ° or 180 °. It can be made not only with a platform, but also with a fan arrangement of steps.

flights of stairs

Calculation of sizes

Stair flights are the main elements of the staircase design, and their parameters are the determining factor that affects the entire functionality of the structure. The steepness, occupied area, width, height and number of steps depend on their dimensions. When designing allconstruction, the calculation of a flight of stairs begins with determining the ratio between the height of the ascent of the stairs and the distance of movement along it forward. This ratio determines the angle of inclination or slope of the stairs. A slope of 30 ° is considered the best option. That is, the ratio of the height of the stairs and its horizontal projection will be 1:2 or 1:1, 75. You can calculate the height of the step (or in construction terminology you can find the term “riser height”) and its width (tread width) using the formula

2b+ a=570 – 640mm (average human stride)

flight of stairs calculation

Usually these dimensions are taken within 150 - 160 mm for the step height and 270 - 320 mm for its width. It is also necessary to observe the distance from any step to the ceiling or any protruding elements - at least 2 m. But it happens that the opening between the floors is small, and it is not possible to make the slope flat. Then the steepness of the slope is increased to 45 °. This is the only way to maintain the standard distance from the ceiling to the steps. According to building codes, flights of stairs must be at least 900 mm wide. Usually the number of steps in a flight of stairs can be from 3 to 16. If there are less than three, then it will not look like a flight of stairs, but a threshold. If there are more than 16 steps, then a person will get tired on it. Two marches located side by side and having the opposite direction must have a distance between them of at least 10 cm.

stair railings

Fencing

Stairs are equippedrailings as guardrails. For any interfloor staircase, the installation of fences is required. Railings of flights of stairs are carried out in the following order. On each march, wooden beams, the so-called balusters, are installed above and below, which serve as the basis for the railing. Balusters are fastened with grooves or metal studs. In addition to them, support intermediate racks are attached through one or two steps. Balusters and intermediate posts are cut at the same angle corresponding to the stair slope. Handrails are attached from above.

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