It's hard to imagine a modern urban landscape without many high-rise buildings, which, in turn, cannot do without flights of stairs, so necessary for industrial and residential buildings.
Reinforced concrete flights of stairs have become the most widespread in mass construction. They, despite their unsightly appearance, have many useful characteristics.
These products are distinguished by the absence of costs in use, ease of finishing, low cost and high strength. Their mass production is carried out in accordance with GOST, which regulates the dimensions and properties. They also have a long service life, low susceptibility to wear, and flame retardant performance through the use of non-flammable material.
Precast concrete stairthe march is made of moisture-proof concrete of heavy type with high frost resistance, reinforced with special metal rods and reinforcing wire.
Due to the basis of high quality raw materials, these building structures can be used in regions with seismic hazard and changing climatic conditions to create panel-frame buildings for industrial, residential and public purposes, not only inside houses, but also from the outside. Can be used as basement, basement and interfloor structures.
In large buildings, the stairs are divided into marches, the number of which depends on the number of floors. Marches are steps that are mounted on load-bearing beams. The device of the flight of stairs is to connect the landings with two flights.
There are two types of such stairs - prefabricated and monolithic. The latter are a classic design in the form of a reinforced concrete solid block, which has become most common in standard houses.
Prefabricated concrete products are based on stringers or bowstrings, they are more convenient when creating elements with non-standard dimensions. Reinforced concrete flights of stairs are divided by platforms according to their structural design into rotary, circular, multi- and single-flight. There are also modifications to move with the left or right direction.
Ribbed concrete products with frieze steps are installed on beams with reinforced reinforcement, there is a frieze for joiningto the sites. Flat versions are marked LM and are based on a reinforced flat slab. The designation LMP is used for spans of ribbed type with a built-in platform. Despite the possibility of using only subject to preliminary calculations or in standard houses, they are distinguished by their convenience and reduced construction time.
Reinforced concrete structures, the main dimensions of which are represented by the width, projection height and length, are produced in a standard size. Due to this, it is possible not to make preliminary calculations when using monolithic options. In prefabricated bases, beams and steps are made in standard dimensions with differences for stairs of any purpose. The march can have a length of up to 6900 mm with a set width of 650 to 1700 mm. The minimum step height is 150mm.
Due to the existence of many models of concrete products, easy installation of prefabricated structural elements in houses with rooms not exceeding a certain height is ensured. But sometimes there are some inconsistencies.
If the reinforced concrete flights of stairs are too high, the excess is eliminated with the help of a frieze lower element buried in the base. However, do not increase the installation height for the lower step, as this can lead to injury, which most often occurs in low light conditions.
To solve the problem, change the level of the lower element toa few degrees. The slope compensates for excess height and will not be noticeable during movement. The shape of the upper slab changes with a lack of march length, while the protrusion of the lower edge of the slab becomes the support for the frieze of the upper element.
With a lack of free space, often occurring in individual low-rise construction, reinforced concrete products are made to order, in accordance with the initial parameters. The height of the step in this case is the main reference size.
Ready-made flights of stairs (reinforced concrete) have become widespread due to their quality characteristics and versatility. They reduce construction costs and speed up construction time. An unsightly appearance can be completely transformed by decorative trim, the options for which depend on financial capabilities and the overall style. Painting, finishing with artificial stone, tile or tile is actively used.
Strengthening marches is necessary in places where there is no quality support under the middle part of the structure. Due to the reinforcing cage, the occurrence of breaks and cracks in concrete is prevented, thus reinforced concrete flights of stairs acquire greater strength.
Steel bars are laid along the supporting base, followed by high-quality cross-links. A metal corner is used to close the edges of steps,to avoid crumbling. Reliable bonding of concrete and angle is ensured by welding elements of steel wire.
Before pouring the concrete mass into the formwork, embedded metal plates or wood plugs are mounted, and then a railing is fixed on them.
Taking into account that the concrete mass should not have layers, each degree is poured in one go. The planes of the created marches, steps and platforms are aligned with special tools upon completion of the pouring of the solution. After the final hardening of the mass, reinforced concrete flights of stairs are ready for use.