If you have your own swimming pool in the yard of your house, then in the morning it is especially nice to get a charge of good mood and vivacity. In cool water, you can restore strength, and if it warms up with the summer sun, you can relax after a busy day. In the summer season, you can refresh yourself in such an artificial pond. If you want to start building a pool, then you should first familiarize yourself with its main types and options, the range of which is truly impressive.
Before starting work, you should decide how difficult it will be for you to maintain the structure, how often you plan to use it, and what equipment you plan to add. All this will affect the choice of a particular pool and the material in its basis.
Types by time of use
According to seasonal purposes, winter and summer artificial reservoirs are distinguished. They are also covered, in which case you can use the pool regardless ofseason. Home indoor pond has some advantages. First, the water does not need to be cleaned frequently. Secondly, taking care of such a pool is quite simple. Thirdly, you will have the opportunity to save electricity. However, it is better to foresee the design before building a house, because intervention in the structure can be unsafe in terms of the strength and stability of the building.
If you need a pool, but it was not provided for by the project of the house, the construction of an extension or the construction of a separate room on the site will be a good option for its construction. If you visit the cottage exclusively in the summer, then you will swim in the fresh air. But such a reservoir needs careful care and protection from pollution by insects, street dust, and tree foliage. But you can protect water and make cleaning easier with a canopy. The surface of the reservoir for the same purpose is covered with a solar film after swimming in the summer.
Types by construction method
Before the device of the pool, you can think about what the design will be - surface or recessed. Concrete pits of a recessed type are the most common solution for creating country pools of impressive volume. Benefits include:
Semi-recessed or raised options are installed in a foundation partially recessed into the ground. Structures are suitable when using a finished bowl or prefabricated structure,when the height of the wall is not more than 1.5 m.
Types by design features
The pool will be built using different technologies, depending on the design features. Artificial reservoirs can be skimmer or overflow. The difference lies in the systems of purification and circulation of water. In the first type, the water level is 20 cm below the edge. The most contaminated upper third of the liquid is removed by a skimmer. The lower layers are cleaned by filters.
In overflow pools, the water surface coincides with the rim or floor. Cleaning is carried out by lattice gutters and a filtration capacity. Overflow pools are more convenient to use, and they look respectable and stylish, but are more expensive than skimmer ones.
Device Features: Materials
The device of the pool is carried out after choosing the type of construction and the type of material that will form the basis of the bowl. The durability and reliability of the structure will depend on this. The most traditional is the technology that involves the use of a concrete monolithic container buried in the ground or under the floor. This method is the most expensive, but the most reliable. Concrete makes a durable and strong reservoir of any depth, size and configuration.
The only way to install a swimming pool in a built building is a concrete structure. When arranging a swimming pool of this type, you can use any decor. It can be mosaicornament or tiling. In such a reservoir, you can organize an overflow or skimmer drain. When creating a tank, you will need to prepare a pit of the desired shape, lay reinforcement with formwork and pour the mortar. The construction cycle will take a lot of time, the work is complex, and you cannot do without construction equipment and the help of professionals.
Swimming pool construction can be made using fiberglass. This material forms the basis of the composite bowl. The container is elastic, resistant to wear, durable and surpasses concrete and steel structures in many respects.
Composite glass fiber containers are crack resistant, moisture resistant and have low thermal conductivity. Based on this, it can be noted that the excessive consumption of electricity is excluded. Before installing a pool in the house, you should also think about the features of its operation.
Glass fiber structures are smooth and inert to prevent bacteria and algae from growing. Such a reservoir will be expensive, but its installation will not take much time, and the service life is almost unlimited. You can install the bowl yourself if you wish.
Use of polypropylene and stainless steel
If you want to save money, you can use polypropylene, which is one of the budget options. Such structures are suitable foroutdoor operation. Bowls can have a variety of sizes and shapes, they are made from a harmless polymer. It is thermoplastic and has anti-shock resistance, high mechanical resistance and tightness.
The pool is installed in a prepared pit, in which a concrete bottom is preliminarily poured. A polypropylene form for a shallow reservoir is built in in a semi-recessed or raised way. The bowl does not require additional finishing. Construction can take anywhere from a few days to a week. When arranging a pool in a house, stainless steel is quite often used. She looks modern and stylish. Its properties allow you to make a bowl of any size and shape. Inside you can install equipment in the form:
- massage devices;
Together with stainless steel tanks, overflow or skimmer type of filtration can be used. The bowl does not need decor. Pond modules can be installed independently in a short time. The reservoir is expensive, but such a disadvantage is compensated by high hygienic qualities, reliability and economical operation.
Rules for the operation and maintenance of the pool
The arrangement and operation of the pool is not an easy task. This applies to both private and public construction. The system needs regular care and maintenance. The process of using the pool should be enjoyable and not harm the person. Watermust be hygienically flawless and transparent.
The basics of after-sales service are:
- preventing mineral deposits and impurities in the bowl;
- water quality control;
- checking robotic systems.
The arrangement and operation of the pool must be taken seriously. Among the one-time events, it is necessary to highlight:
- cleaning bowl anti-algae treatment;
- preservation and preparation for use.
To clean the bottom and walls, moisten them with water if the bowl has been empty for a long time. Modern coatings are quite resistant and not easily damaged by mechanical action, but moisturizing can make cleaning easier. This process is technologically advanced, and it is better to use special equipment to remove contaminants. These can be foam guns, dirty water pumps, rotary bottom cleaners.
If, due to the high content of s alts in the liquid, a white coating appears on the walls, then it is unlikely that it will be possible to wipe it off with a brush. A special limescale remover should be used. The use of chemical household preparations is not recommended, as they are often ineffective and contribute to the appearance and growth of microorganisms, as well as algae in the tile joints. Therefore, there is a risk of damage to the stainless steel product if it is not protected from cleaning agents.
After the installation of the pool on the site is bettertake care of it in a timely manner, excluding the costly and time-consuming cleaning procedure using a variety of devices and tools after a long time. Among the comprehensive measures, surface treatment against algae should be highlighted. After cleaning, a special solution should be applied to the walls and bottom, which excludes the appearance of living microorganisms. This procedure must be carried out before each filling of the pool. If it is not used all year round, the pool is prepared for shutdown or start-up before winter closure and summer reopening.
As for open containers, they are cleaned and treated with products before the onset of cold weather. In this case, it is necessary to drown the expansion joints in water and close the bowl with a protective cover. It is important to know how filters are cared for. Good condition is the key to safety and capacity frequency. Filters are subjected to high loads, they work even if the pool is not in use, otherwise bacteria and algae can begin to multiply in the water, the liquid will become cloudy and acquire an unpleasant odor. Filters must be washed, this procedure must be carried out regularly. These jobs are done once a week.
Overflow bowl design features
The device of the overflow pool provides for the preparation of a pit of the desired shape. The technology provides for waterproofing work and grouting. It is important to provide for the presence of a compensation tank, the volume of which will be 10% of the volume of water for the pool. The capacity of the main pool can beconcreted or finished, made of PVC. This is convenient and reduces financial costs.
This type of pool filter device is somewhat different. The skimmer is not needed here. Water will be supplied through nozzles at the bottom, and a tray with a grate will be installed around the perimeter. The liquid will fall into the tray when overflowing, and then into the reserve tank. After filtration, it will be supplied through these nozzles to the pool. The device of the pool equipment provides for the installation of a pipe that is brought to the pit before concreting the bowl. It is equipped with return nozzles, and the height is calculated so that after pouring it remains above the concrete surface. To this value, add the thickness of the finishing material.
There is a chute along the perimeter of the bowl, which is then closed with a decorative lattice. At its bottom there are drain holes through which the liquid enters the pipe during overflow. It leads to the pool and overflow tank. When arranging a pool in a private house using this technology, an additional filter station is installed at the inlet. It should be mounted at the level of the overflow pipe. This ensures that the liquid is clear when overflowing.
An overflow reserve tank is installed under the pit, and the pipes from it should go to the bottom and to the filter station. From the latter, the pipe goes to the pool, a tie-in is made to it, from the dispenser and disinfector. Next is the installation of pumping equipment. Next to the pool, you can install a control panel that will be responsible for turning on and offequipment. With it, you can monitor water purification and control filtration.
Working on the drain
When installing a pool drain, you can use the simplest technology, which involves leading a pipe to the sewer. To do this, it is necessary to install a drain in the pool, connect it to the sewer and lay the pipes, laying them in the right direction and with a certain slope. The liquid will leave faster if the diameter of the pipes is chosen correctly, and the distance to the sewer is kept to a minimum. If you use a small pool, then draining from it can be provided to the beds. If the structure is located on a slight slope or next to a drainage ditch, then the procedure is simplified. At the same time, the relief valve opens, and a hose is discharged from it to the right place. After that, the waste water will flow from the tank by gravity, and it will be possible to replace it with clean water.
When arranging a pool in a bath for draining, you can also use a medium-power pump that will convert water into pressure for watering beds and flower beds. Water can also be drained into a septic tank. But experts do not recommend withdrawing in this way, because the cesspool and septic tank can be filled at a time. The way out can be a drain into a special pit for draining wastewater, which is dug to a depth below the level of the tank. It is desirable to achieve a sand and gravel layer of soil. The contents of the structure in this case will go faster if the pit is used for its intended purpose.
The pool cleaning device is the use of one of themethods known today. Among others, the automatic mechanical method should be highlighted. It involves the use of filters, the principle of operation of which is based on the passage of liquid through barriers. Water is freed from organic and mechanical impurities, particles of the epidermis, hair, dust and insects.
Filter devices can be classified. Filters are offered in different types, they can be diatomaceous, sand and cartridge. The most affordable are sand filters, which are the least efficient of their more expensive counterparts. The filter material in such devices is quartz sand, which is prepared and retains mechanical particles larger than 25 microns.
The hygienic requirements for swimming pools state that the sand barrier gets dirty over time, so it requires cleaning once a week. To do this, the device is subjected to a reverse flow of water, whereby the filter material is flushed with purified water.
Cartridge filters consist of several polypropylene and polyester cartridges. They contribute to the thorough purification of water, which is due to the design features. Filters trap foreign particles, they work more efficiently than those described above and are more expensive. Cartridge filters are designed for one-time use, after which they are disposed of.
Earth or diatomaceous earth filters are among the most expensive, but effective and modern. They are designed for mechanical cleaning.The inside of the filtering device is filled with crushed powder from diatom shells. It is a plankton fossil. Diatomaceous earth powder is the most effective water treatment agent, as it is capable of retaining particles down to 5 microns. To clean the diatomaceous filter, you can use the reverse cleaning method or purchase a liquid cleaner that is used to dissolve contaminants in the bulk material.
Hygienic requirements for swimming pools require the use of handheld vacuum cleaners, which are the most inexpensive cleaning options available today. Such devices are simple, and the design provides for a handle bar, a brush and a long hose. Such a vacuum cleaner has one distinctive feature, which is that the electrical equipment remains on the surface and is not immersed in water. Manual vacuum cleaners are non-autonomous, they work in conjunction with filtering units.
What is a winder for
The pool winder can be a real lifesaver for many owners of such artificial reservoirs. Similar designs are floating shelters of a water mirror. It eliminates the ingress of leaves and dust if it is an open bowl. Water evaporation is reduced, which reduces the load on the dehumidifier and ventilation system.
The winder can reduce the energy cost of heating water. Some of these coatings are able to withstand children and small animals on the surface, which has its own advantages in the safe operation of the pool. Coatings can belouvered, which gives the pool an aesthetic look, you can choose them according to the color palette so that the material is in harmony with the finish of the pool. Pool reels are available in a variety of styles, but some do not require power lines. The design involves the use of a battery and charger. Mounting the model is quite simple.
Concrete pool installation
First you need to choose the location of the pool. This will make its own adjustments to the technology. Construction is usually accompanied by laying the foundation and erecting a house. You must decide whether the bowl will be higher or flush with the floor. It is important to take into account the number of people who can be inside at the same time.
Next, determine the size and shape of the bowl. When arranging a pool with your own hands, you need to remember that for swimming an adult, a design with a length and depth that is 5.5 x 1.5 m will be optimal. First, you will need to carry out earthworks, dig a pit. It will not be possible to do without special equipment. The pit should be larger than the size of the bowl in order to place technical equipment inside and equip a pillow for concrete. There should also be a place for formwork.
When digging walls, it is necessary to monitor the presence of corners and their deviation in relation to the vertical. This method will prevent the shedding of soil into a dug pit. It is important to ensure that a drainage system is in place so that the water does not turn into a puddle when splashed and does not disturb the landscaping.
Need to lay hydrauliccommunications and provide for the possibility of draining the liquid. To do this, a slope is made, which should be directed towards the drain hole. Next, a pillow is set up, it will consist of gravel and sand, but high-quality concrete pouring should be ensured. The pillow will consist of crushed stone, as well as sand, which are well compacted and have a height of 350 mm.
The pool waterproofing device involves protecting the bottom. Usually roofing material is used as a material, which is laid with an overlap of 200 mm. It is better to lay it in several layers. Additionally, you can use liquid rubber, bitumen or coating materials. An excellent alternative would be PVC membrane. Next, you can start pouring the first layer of concrete. It is prepared from:
Each of these ingredients is added in the following quantities:
- 170 L;
- 1250 kg.
This amount of materials will be enough to prepare one cubic meter of concrete mix. Concrete grade B25 can be used for the footing, while hydrotechnical concrete is suitable for the bowl itself. If hydroconcrete is not available, C500 grade cement can be used. After completing all the work, the base of the bowl will be a kind of cake made of soil, sand, crushed stone, concrete, cement mortar, a waterproofing layer and a reinforced concrete bowl.
The bottom should be reinforced with a steel bar, laying reinforcement in two tiers. Bricks should be placed under the reinforcement so that in the middle of the concretesolution remained rods. After the installation of the armoframe, the bottom of the pool is filled with mortar. At the same time, the presence of voids with air should be prevented, which will contribute to a decrease in the quality of the surface.
Next, you can proceed with the installation of formwork. The material for this will be a wooden board. The next step will be to fill the pool bowl, after which you can start arranging steps. If a metal staircase is not provided, and the procedure for immersion in water should be smooth, it is better to make the steps concrete. The formwork under them is installed when the concrete bowl is ready. It is better to use plywood for this, as it can be used to create bent shapes, and additional stripping is not required.
If you decide to install a swimming pool in your house or at your summer cottage, then concrete will be the best material for this. The inner surface of the bowl from it can be polished with a special machine. Do not forget about waterproofing, for this a special liquid solution is applied to the surface of the container, between the layers of which a reinforcing fabric in the form of a grid is laid.