An important condition for the formation of a normal microclimate, which contributes to maintaining good he alth, is the regular supply of fresh air into the room. Therefore, ventilation holes in the foundation, in the roof, as well as in the walls, are an integral element of literally any structure. Below in the article we will study the main functions of ventilation, the principle of operation and the norms of ventilation openings.
In the process of forming the air exchange system of a residential building, it is important to take care of the arrangement of air supply and exhaust. For this purpose, ventilation openings are created in the building structure, among the important functions of which are:
- Alignment of temperature and pressure in rooms.
- Removal of carbon dioxide.
- Ensuring internal circulation of air masses.
- Implementing natural level adjustmenthumidity.
Ventilation in the foundation
To ensure that the basement is always dry, it is necessary to ensure round-the-clock ventilation of the base of the house. This can be done in two ways: by forming appropriate holes in the basement of the building, by making several ventilation holes on different sides of the foundation, or by bringing the exhaust pipe to the roof. Today, there are two main ways to create a ventilation system in rooms that are in a building below ground level:
- Cut special vents in the foundation. In this situation, excess moisture is removed due to a draft: ventilation holes should be located in opposite walls.
- In this case, ventilation holes are not formed at the base of the building, but they necessarily make good external insulation of the foundation, basement and even blind areas, if any. After that, the soil is waterproofed inside the basement.
Ventilation holes in the foundation specialists can cut both round and square sections. Much less often, such devices are made triangular or any other shape. The main condition is that the dimensions of the ventilation openings are sufficient to ensure effective removal of moisture from the basement and basements.
Don't invent a "bicycle" and break the rules. SNiP01/31/2003 regulate the dimensions of the ventilation holes in the foundation. According to these standards, the area of such devices should be at least 1/400 of the total area of \u200b\u200bthe basements. For example, if the subfloor area is 80 sq. m, then the total area of ventilation holes in the base of the building should be 80/400 \u003d 0.2 square meters. m or 20 sq. see
Ventilation in the wall
The air exchange system also provides for the formation of fresh air through the wall. Today, there are two types of ventilation that are built into the wall and into the window - natural and mechanical.
The first option, that is, the natural flow of air, is provided by a wall supply valve. The principle of its operation is similar to the basis of the operation of a window valve: in fact, an additional through hole is created for the movement of air, but a person cannot control its volume.
During the installation of the supply valve, the specialist must necessarily take into account the climatic conditions of the environment: in regions with long and frosty winters (most of Russia), the wall ventilation valve freezes through and also contributes to this process, covering the wall around the hole.
The second option - mechanical supply ventilation is also inserted into the wall structure. This device allows you to control and regulate the volume of air entering the room. Mechanical ventilation are special devices with fans that force air from the surroundingWednesday.
To form a ventilation hole in the wall, a through hole is made - an air duct. It is important to note that for the installation of different devices it is necessary to make vents of different diameters. The air vent dimensions are as follows:
- For inlet wall valves you will need 10-13.2 cm.
- Ventilator needs 8, 2-15, 0 cm.
- The heat exchanger needs one hole 21.5-22.5 cm or two holes 8-9 cm in diameter with a distance of 20-35 cm between them.
- For breathers to form supply ventilation - 13.2 cm.
Ventilation holes are also important for letting excess moisture out of the home, which prevents the growth of disease-causing bacteria and mold. Also, ventilation devices in the roof prevent wood from rotting in the attic. Devices for ventilation are made of plastic or metal. Such devices can be made by hand from materials that are quite realistic to purchase in a construction or household supermarket.
Typically, for every 15 sq. m of the roof, air vents with an area of 0.1 sq. m.
Ventilation on soffit
A cardboard air vent template is required to make the ventilation device. With the help of such a layout, the specialist draws the outline of the hole between the soffit supports. The location of the latter is easy to find by the heads of the nails that serve to fastensoffit to supports. Holes are drilled at the corners of the contour using a drill or other improvised tools. The work is completed by installing a grate on the vent.
To ventilate the room, literally everyone is used to opening windows. The most obvious, but also the most inconvenient way. With fresh air, dust and dirt from the environment, noise and smells from the street enter the living quarters. In winter, an open window contributes to the appearance of drafts and, accordingly, colds.
Another way to ensure proper ventilation through the window is to install an air inlet valve in the window frame. Thanks to this, it is quite possible to increase the natural flow of air by creating an additional vent.
Exhaust ventilation is an important element for normal air exchange in both residential and public buildings. If it is installed correctly, then a favorable microclimate for people's he alth will be maintained in the premises.