Which foam block is better for building a house? Foam concrete block: properties, characteristics, pros and cons

Which foam block is better for building a house? Foam concrete block: properties, characteristics, pros and cons
Which foam block is better for building a house? Foam concrete block: properties, characteristics, pros and cons
Anonim

Foam block is a relatively new material, which is often used in the construction of country houses and cottages. It has certain advantages and disadvantages. You need to know what parameters to pay attention to when choosing. This will help the advice of experts. Which foam block is better for building a house? The answer to this question will be presented in the article.

Material features

Which foam block is better for building a house? To make the right choice, you need to consider the features and main characteristics of this material. He appeared on the construction market relatively recently. This is a young and promising material that is actively used in the construction of houses. The construction process in this case is accelerated by 1.5-2 times.

House made of foam blocks for permanent residence

Walls built from such blocks will provide warmth and comfort indoors. At the same time, the material is environmentallysafe, durable. This is a lightweight cellular type of building concrete, which belongs to the category of porous type artificial stones. The size of the blocks is clearly geometric.

How are foam blocks made? First, a cement mortar is prepared, and then sand and a foaming agent are added to it. This material is suitable for one-story construction. Externally, the surface of the foam blocks is similar to shell rock, pumice. Inside they consist of closed air bubbles.

Considering how foam blocks are made, you can understand why they have good thermal conductivity and sound insulation. The air inside serves as a good barrier to the penetration of cold and noise from the street. This is a low density material.

Blocks are similar to bricks, but have different dimensions. They are more than standard building materials. This allows you to do any type of masonry. When using this material, it turns out to create a relatively light structure, saving on the construction of the foundation.

In the walls of foam blocks it is easy to cut holes for sockets, lay hidden wiring and other communications. You can also perform any architectural project. This material has a lot of advantages, so it is in great demand today.

Production method

Foam block manufacturers use different methods during the technological cycle. As a result, the material acquires special qualities. There are three categories of foam blocks:

  • Cassette. The solution in this case is poured into special cells. These are forms that have standard dimensions. They are curingconcrete. This process takes about 10 hours.
  • Foam blocks with automatic demoulding. This is an improved version of the cassette production. Forms in this case are installed in a special machine. The solution is poured into the cells, and then after 14 hours the equipment squeezes the ready-made foam blocks onto the pallet.
  • Sliced ​​from an array. The components are mixed and poured into a large mold. Its volume sometimes reaches 3 m³. The material hardens within 15 hours. Then one large block is sawn into several small ones.
Foam block properties characteristics

You need to choose the right density of the foam block, which can be different. The higher this figure, the heavier the weight of the structure. At the same time, the thermal conductivity also increases. The weight of the foam blocks affects the choice of the foundation of the house. If the density is high, you need to install a thicker layer of thermal insulation.

It is worth considering that the technology that is used during the creation of blocks suggests that over time the material will only become harder. Studies have shown that foam blocks that have stood in the masonry for more than 50 years become 3 times harder than new materials.

Varieties

It is worth noting that the blocks can be produced by the autoclave and non-autoclave method. In the first case, the workpiece hardens faster when using special equipment. This allows you to increase the strength of the material, eliminate the likelihood of shrinkage during the operation of the structure.

Non-autoclave method allows you to make blocks almost at homeconditions. The required strength of the blanks is achieved by natural drying of the cement mortar. But the shrinkage of the material increases significantly.

Sizes

It is worth noting that the presented material is manufactured in accordance with the requirements of GOST 21520-89 and 25485-89. It is indicated here that during their production they adhere to standard sizes of foam blocks. Dimensions vary by material application.

foam concrete block

For load-bearing walls, blocks of 20 x 30 x 60 cm are made. If it is necessary to build partitions, a different type of material is used. The standard size of the foam block in this category is 10 x 30 x 60 cm.

GOSTs regulate that the thickness of the foam blocks should be within 30-40 cm. At the same time, the standard dimensions include: 20 x 30 x 50 cm, 20 x 30 x 60 cm, 30 x 40 x 60 cm and 20 x 40 x 60 cm. Other sizes may be available.

If necessary, blocks can be cut during the production process. This allows you to create blocks of the desired size. But at the same time, it must be remembered that GOST provides for a maximum length of one block of up to 60 cm. It is worth noting that one standard wall foam block can replace 17 ordinary, 15 silicate bricks during masonry work.

When choosing, you need to pay attention to the configuration of the blocks. They must comply with the standards. You can check them using the building level. The exact dimensions of the blocks allow you to save on insulation work over time.

Stamps

There are 4 main brands of foam blocks on sale. They have the letter D in the marking and the corresponding numerical value:

  1. Materials D150-D400. These are heat-insulating varieties of foam concrete. The number in the marking indicates the strength of the foam block. The designation shown indicates that the unit is capable of withstanding a load of 150-400 kg/m³. All grades below D400 do not have a strength class standard. For D400, this figure can vary from B0.5 to B0.75. This is the tensile strength, which is 9 kg / cm³.
  2. Materials D500-D900. This group is called structural and thermal insulation material. The strength class of foam blocks of this group ranges from 13 to 35 kg / cm³.
  3. Materials D1000- D1200. These are structural foam blocks that are highly durable. This indicator varies from 50 to 90 kg/cm³.
  4. Materials D1300- D1600. This is the most durable type of foam blocks, which is called the construction and production variety. Such materials are produced in small batches. In GOST, the designation for such foam blocks is not provided. They have a limited, specialized scope.

The strength index largely depends on the humidity and temperature at which the blocks were made, as well as the type of filler, grade of cement used during production.

Benefits

Considering the properties and characteristics of foam blocks, it is worth noting that this material has many advantages. It has an acceptable cost, which significantly reduces the cost of the process.construction. It is a natural, environmentally friendly material that does not harm the environment and human he alth. Foam blocks have the following advantages:

  • High performance heat and noise insulation. This avoids the arrangement of an additional layer of insulation and sound insulation. In this case, it will be possible to save up to 30% on heating.
  • The material is light, which is achieved by low density. The light weight saves on the construction of the foundation, which further reduces the construction budget.
  • The wall and partition foam blocks are quite large in size, which allows you to perform the laying quickly. It is much more difficult to make mistakes in this case. Even a novice master can build a house from foam blocks with his own hands.
  • Fire retardant material. Foam blocks are able to hold the flame, preventing it from spreading around the house, for 4 hours with a partition thickness of 15 cm.
  • The vapor permeability of the blocks allows you to maintain the correct, he althy microclimate inside the rooms in the house. According to this indicator, foam concrete almost completely corresponds to natural wood. The rooms are cool in summer and warm in winter. Air humidity is maintained at an optimal level, so fungus does not develop on walls, ceilings, and other surfaces.
  • Processing foam concrete blocks is easy. You can create complex structural elements from it, bringing to life various design projects.
  • The material is frost-resistant. Its properties are preserved even during numerous cycles of thawing and freezing. Atseasonal temperature fluctuations are absent.
  • If you build building structures from foam blocks correctly, over time they will become even stronger.
How foam blocks are made

The listed advantages allow you to build a house of foam blocks for permanent residence. But before creating a plan for the future structure, you need to consider the shortcomings of this material.

Flaws

Aerated concrete has relatively few negative qualities. But you need to know about them when planning the construction of a house from foam concrete blocks. This material is characterized by a high rate of water absorption. This means that the outer surfaces of the walls absorb moisture that is present in the environment well. Therefore, the facade of the building necessarily requires special finishing.

Foam block strength

The material has a low density. This does not allow you to create multi-storey buildings from blocks. When choosing a material, you need to know which foam block is best for building a house. So, for load-bearing walls, this indicator should have a high density. Otherwise, the design will be fragile, will shrink a lot.

Another disadvantage is the fact that the material slowly gains strength. Therefore, caution must be exercised at the beginning of the operation of the building.

Existing shortcomings cannot cross out the advantages of foam blocks. Therefore, this material is actively used in construction work.

What to consider when choosing?

Deciding which foam block is best for building a house,it is worth reading the advice of experts. They argue that high-quality material can only be purchased from trusted trading companies. The characteristics of the blocks can be assessed by visual inspection and the use of a building level. The dimensions of each block must be the same.

Which foam block is better for building a house

To check if the blocks are even, you need to lay them out on a flat surface. Then they are applied to each other. Foam blocks should fit snugly one to the other over the entire surface. You also need to inspect the blocks. On their surface there should be no bumps, bulges, deformations. If there are ledges, more mortar will be needed.

You need to ask the seller for a product certificate. These products are manufactured in accordance with GOSTs, so the relevant documentation must be supplied by the manufacturer.

To check the strength of the foam block, you need to rub it with your fingers. If it is possible to grind the material, manufacturers saved on cement. This indicates non-compliance with production technology. Such material cannot be durable.

Also, the violation of production technology indicates the presence of cracks on the surface. The drying process was not carried out correctly, there is an internal tension in the material. Because of this, the foam block may collapse under the influence of loads.

Quality material has bubbles of the same size in the structure. They should be evenly distributed over the structure of the foam block. Their size should not exceed 1 mm, and the shape should bespherical. If they have an oval shape, this will reduce strength.

Blocks should have a uniform color, without streaks. In the middle should be the same color as the walls. If there is a difference, low-quality material was used for lubrication. Because of this, plaster may not adhere well to the surface.

Another issue to pay attention to is the quality of the packaging. Foam blocks should be stacked on a pallet, packed with a transparent film. In the film, moisture from the material does not evaporate so quickly. Foam blocks gain strength during storage. If they dry quickly, the material will crack over time.

How to calculate the amount of material?

The foam concrete block has a lot of advantages. To correctly calculate the amount of material, you need to follow certain recommendations. First you need to calculate the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe walls. To do this, their length is multiplied by their height.

Strength class of foam blocks

The area of ​​door or window openings is subtracted from the result. The procedure is carried out for all walls. This is how the total area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe masonry is obtained. Next, you need to calculate the number of foam blocks. Let's say a wall variety of materials will be used. The house will be one-story, 10 x 10 m in size. The ceiling height will be 3 m and the thickness will be 30 cm.

The total area of ​​door and window openings is 15 m². There are 27.7 pieces per 1 m³. foam blocks. The perimeter of the house is 40 m, and the total area of ​​the walls is 40 x 3=120 m². The total masonry area is 120-15=105 m².

To determine the required number of blocks per square meter, you need to calculate the outer surface of the material 0.2 x 0.6=0.12 m². Now you can determine the number of foam blocks: 1 / 0, 12=8, 3 foam blocks.

The total amount of material is 105 x 8, 3=871.5 pcs. The material is sold in cubic meters, so the number of foam blocks will be as follows: 871.5 / 27.7=31.5 cm³.

A few recommendations

It is worth considering that the edges on the blocks are quite fragile. They can fight back, so you need to unload materials very carefully. It is necessary to lay the blocks not on an ordinary solution, but on a special adhesive composition. It has a cement base. This allows you to make the layer thinner. It can be only 2-3 cm. This will avoid the appearance of cold bridges. Through thick seams, heat from the room will quickly escape.

Foam block density

Walls made of foam block need further finishing. Weather conditions will adversely affect the exterior surfaces of the house. To do this, you can use cement-based plaster. A plaster mesh is pre-mounted on the wall. When the layer of facing mortar hardens, it will be possible to paint it in any suitable color. By following the recommendations of experts, you can ensure a long service life of a foam block house.

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