Reinforced concrete foundation: types and technology of construction

Reinforced concrete foundation: types and technology of construction
Reinforced concrete foundation: types and technology of construction
Anonim

What is the device of reinforced concrete foundations? Let's start with the fact that it means the support of any building, its bearing part, the main foundation of the entire building.

Where to start?

It is the reliability and functionality of the foundation that determines the main technical qualities of the future building, durability.

It is important to consider that the construction of a high-quality and durable foundation will require approximately 15-20% of the total cost of the entire house.

You also need to remember that it is impossible to make mistakes when installing the foundation, otherwise the building may simply come off some time after it has been erected from the piles.

reinforced concrete foundations

Varieties

Reinforced concrete foundation is consideredin the construction of one of the most sought-after structures. Durability, significant service life - all these are its distinguishing characteristics.

Installation of a reinforced concrete foundation involves a long technological process of concrete reinforcement. As a result, concrete slabs with increased strength appear. They are filled with a reinforcing cage, the main function of which is to strengthen the reinforced concrete foundation. In addition, it protects the structure from premature destruction.

Depending on the construction option, two types of reinforced concrete foundation are currently distinguished:

  • monolithic;
  • prefabricated.

The first involves pouring at the construction site, is a one-piece structure. Prefabricated options contain several parts fixed together with cement mortar. Installation of reinforced concrete foundations is carried out from concrete slabs of various calibers in the factory.

installation of reinforced concrete foundations

Design comparison

Let's analyze the distinctive features of different types of structures. What is the difference between these types of reinforced concrete foundations? Prefabricated structures are built in the shortest possible time, but it is impossible to assemble and manufacture them on your own, you will need the help of special equipment and a team of workers. The weight of one block is 0.3-1.5 tons, so it is difficult to imagine that one person can handle the block.

Taking into account the specifics of the work, the reinforced concrete foundation will cost about 50% more than the monolithic version.

Belt assemblythe foundation option is used for the construction of massive buildings. The main task of the developer will be to complete the work in one season. Such a base is suitable for rapid construction. What are the advantages of a prefabricated foundation? The reinforced concrete frame of this type is of high quality, so GOST standards are applied in its manufacture.

From a technical point of view, monolithic species are of interest, since they are characterized by a solid surface. Any seams that are in the design significantly reduce strength.

main structures of reinforced concrete foundations

How to do the calculations?

To do this, you need to calculate the total weight of the planned structure: payload, walls, ceilings. The construction of reinforced concrete foundations involves taking into account furniture, heating and household equipment, seasonal and snow loads, depending on the climatic features of the region. Next, the specific pressure on the soil of the building being created is calculated. It is important to calculate the geometric dimensions of the base being created. Dimensional adjustments are made by fitting to requirements according to the calculated ground pressure.

Calculation of a reinforced concrete foundation involves the summation of certain loads:

  • useful;
  • structural elements;
  • snow.

The weight of individual elements is calculated according to the following algorithm:

  1. Measure the linear dimensions of project components.
  2. Calculate their volume.
  3. Calculatethe proportion of building materials that are used for construction work.
  4. Determine the weight of each building fragment.
  5. The total weight of the structure, under which the reinforced concrete foundation is selected, is calculated. Dimensions can be determined by ready-made formulas. As the main requirement for such a foundation, we note the prevalence of soil resistance to the load on it.
foundation specifics

Important points when creating the foundation

Depending on the type of soil, different depths are used during construction to form the foundation.

In any case, when laying the foundation, it is necessary that the foundation be located above the possible level of partial or complete freezing of the soil. This will make it possible to protect the base of the foundation from excessive moisture, therefore, it will increase its performance. It is important to take into account the approximate service life of different foundation options.

For example, they can have the following meanings:

  • strip foundations made with cement mortar have a service life of 150 years;
  • rubble or concrete pillars are only good for 30-50 years;
  • wooden chairs only last 10 years.

Establishing foundations in wintertime

Is it possible to create strong structures of reinforced concrete foundations in a cold winter? Only professionals can solve such a complex problem. Previously, building a foundation in the winter was considered almost impossible, but now it has becomea perfectly acceptable process.

In the modern construction market, innovative technologies are used that allow building a foundation with excellent reliability and quality indicators even in winter. Strengthening a reinforced concrete foundation is a great way to get the job done.

Of course, the ideal option for construction is the warm season. In terms of timing, it will be much easier and faster to build a foundation for a future residential or industrial building, for example, in spring or autumn.

Seasonal work will require a much smaller amount of expensive building materials, and there will be less load on the team of workers, and the process will be carried out much faster. But when it is necessary to make a foundation with rather frozen ground, it is important to follow certain rules. It's important not to panic. Professional builders will help to make a high-quality reinforced concrete foundation even in such weather conditions.

You need to start with preparing a foundation pit for the future foundation. In the construction of houses, the strip foundation option is most often used, and to install it, you need to dig a foundation pit.

When pouring concrete, heating can be used, which will make it possible to exclude freezing of concrete, as well as its too fast hardening process. Additional special additives are introduced into cement that can withstand even very low temperatures.

The foundation is also reinforced with a reinforced concrete clip. When carrying out such work, builders try to make the most of ready-madefoundation structures.

For example, concrete blocks are placed, which are made at a cement plant. These blocks are placed in a pit made, liquid concrete mortar is used in minimal quantities. There are many more different options to make a foundation in low temperatures.

reinforced concrete foundation

Foundation options in modern construction

How are reinforced concrete foundations selected? The series depends on the operational characteristics of the building. Among the widespread options for the foundation, it is possible to note the strip foundation. If a team of builders offering their foundation erection services asks for a small amount of money, it is worth considering, and even wary. A high-quality foundation cannot be inexpensive, because up to 25% of all costs associated with the construction of a new residential building can be spent on its construction.

It is the foundation that is the most important element of any structure, including a residential private house. The duration of the service life of the building itself, as well as the comfort of using this building, will directly depend on the quality and reliability of the foundation.

For the construction of a reinforced concrete foundation, it is advisable to invite real professionals without saving your material resources at this stage of construction. It is the foundation that will determine both the material for the walls and the roof structure, and not vice versa. In this connection, thinking about the option of the foundation, it is important to think over the design of the house, calculate the force with which the walls and roofwill put pressure on the ground.

If the construction is carried out without full preliminary calculations, after the construction of the house, it can simply “go underground”. It should also be noted that the condition of the soil on this land will also have an impact on the choice of foundation for a new house.

reinforced concrete foundation

Soil analysis

When you start building a new house, you need to pay significant attention to the foundation. It is he who will determine the entire future fate of the residential building being built. Before starting work directly related to the construction of the foundation, it is necessary to analyze the condition of the soil.

Quite often the ground is so soft that it is not able to withstand the foundation being built. You have to dig a pretty deep pit in order to get what you want. That is why the work on the construction of the foundation becomes a very expensive pleasure for the budget of this customer. Therefore, professional builders are trying to choose a simpler and less expensive version of the foundation. For example, with loose soil, you can build a pile foundation. To create it, they take piles that have the shape of pillars, their length reaches 7.5 m.

To obtain the necessary margin of safety for the foundation under construction under the house, approximately two dozen of these piles should be driven. Some builders recommend installing them in pairs, making a distance of about 1.5 meters between them. Pairs of piles can be placed at a distance of 4.5 meters. They are placed under load-bearing walls,as well as all corners of the building, that is, in those places where the maximum load is from the side of the walls.

Tips for piling

When creating a pile foundation, it is important to carry out the driving itself with high quality, and then cut off all the excess with a saw, doing this approximately at the level of the existing soil. Then a trench is dug by an excavator near each pair. Then a reinforced concrete grillage is installed above each pile pair.

Experienced builders lay such a reinforced concrete grillage on top of the pillars, or rather pour it. It makes it possible to completely protect the poles from possible damage, as well as the appearance of splits, cracks that occur due to the loads exerted.

In addition, grillages help protect piles from rotting processes. They are reinforced with reinforcing bars horizontally and vertically. If you do not pay due attention to the process of creating the foundation, you can later regret it very much.

features of creation

Building the foundation

There are several different types of foundations that differ in their reliability, economic component, as well as in the load that they can withstand during their direct operation.

In the case of the construction of any light buildings, for example, baths, outbuildings, the best option would be to create a columnar foundation. It is important to consider that in such cases, the diameter of the column should be in the range of 200-250mm, the reinforcement process is 8-10mm, used as the main material forsuch a foundation concrete grade M300.

You also need high-quality sand preparation, which is at least 200 mm. It is also necessary to observe a certain laying depth of the entire main sole, and, starting from the ground surface, it should be approximately 1500 mm.

The optimal distance that is allowed between the installed pillars is allowed at 2 m. Be sure to install high-quality waterproofing made of two layers of roofing material on each pillar. In order to carry out the release of reinforcement, it is necessary to lay the lower trim of the structure.

In the case of building houses, if there is no project for the basement of the building, it is recommended to create a strip foundation. The installation of this option is also interesting from the standpoint of material costs. Tape options for foundations are presented in two types: monolithic or prefabricated from various reinforced concrete structures.

If there is a significant slope or in difficult terrain, or if the groundwater level is high enough, experts recommend installing a pile-strip foundation.

Pile elements are necessarily deepened to the maximum depth of possible freezing of the existing soil and then tapes are additionally installed at the corners of the perimeter, and directly under the main bearing walls.

It is important that there be at least one such tape on each side along the entire existing perimeter of the building, however, not counting the corner elements.

This foundation option is perfect for building a wide variety of house options: Canadian,lumber, frame buildings, houses made of logs, glued beams, foam concrete. The final result depends on the correct selection of the foundation - the strength and reliability of a residential building or an industrial building.

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