Almost everyone at least once in their life did repairs on their own. This is an insanely long and complicated process, especially for beginners. One of the stages is wallpapering, but according to SNiP, simple wall plastering is prerequisite.
The procedure is used to level the surface and in order to protect buildings from external influences. Plaster can be used as a base for further decoration or as the main wall covering. But first you need to familiarize yourself with both the application technique and the possible options for work.
Composition of mortar for plaster walls
The solution is able to mix in different proportions. It all depends on the characteristics of the structure in which the composition is used. In addition, the experience of the master himself, who plans to make repairs, plays an important role.
Of course, now in the hardware store you can find a huge variety of mixtures for plaster, which you only need to fill with water. But they will cost much more than a solution prepared by one's own hands. This nuance will be especially important for thosewho needs to plaster a large surface, and the budget is limited.
There are several types of simple wall plasters.
This kind of simple plaster composition is most often used in dry rooms to level walls made of stones, bricks, adobe and wood. The process of kneading the clay solution is quite long, since the source material must be soaked in advance. The dry mass should be cleaned and filled with water. After that, mix the composition and leave for about a day, maybe more. If after 24 hours the consistency does not resemble sour cream, add a little more water.
After it is worth passing the composition through a sieve so that no solid particles remain. When all the previous procedures are done, it is necessary to add sand to the solution. Such a composition can be stored for quite a long time, and in order for it to return to working condition, you will need to add water.
Limestone and gypsum mortar
This solution is used for plastering fiberboard, stone and wooden walls, as well as for bases in rooms with normal humidity.
Kneading such a composition in large quantities is not recommended, because due to the presence of gypsum, the mass rapidly hardens.
The lime-gypsum mortar must be applied within 10-15 minutes. If it has frozen, then you don’t even need to think about diluting it with water, as you could do with clay.
For the correct preparation of the solution, it is necessary to pour gypsum into a container with water and stir untilstate of thick sour cream. Next, add limestone to the finished mixture. The mixture must be used within a short time.
This mortar is used to level walls and ceilings in dry rooms. When the composition dries, it changes its tone from gray to white. If you choose this type of solution, then it must be borne in mind that it does not differ in particular strength. But its peculiarity is that the composition dries not for 10-15 minutes, but for 2-3 hours.
In order to prepare the mixture, it is necessary to pass milk of lime through a sieve, then gradually add sand and mix at the same time. And after that, pass the solution through a sieve again to get a homogeneous mass.
Limestone and cement mortar
This species is considered universal. The cement mortar is plastic, but sets for about two days.
It can be done in two ways: mix cement and sand, then add milk of lime, or perhaps knead the lime dough with the addition of sand and water, then cement, and as a result everything is mixed until a homogeneous mass.
The plastering process is divided into several stages.
First, you need to level the walls. The second stage of construction work is the installation of lighthouses. This procedure is extremely important for further work. Lighthouses are small devices - strips that help you navigate when applying plaster. They are attached to the wall with a plaster mix.
Next, i.e. thirdthe stage will be "spray". This is a rough layer of plaster. Its main function is to provide good adhesion between the wall and the subsequent layer. Pay attention to the fact that the thickness of the "spray" should be less than 5 mm.
The consistency of the solution should resemble thin sour cream. This layer does not require leveling, it serves to close all cracks and splits.
The fourth stage is the application of primer, the main layer of plaster. The mixture should be thicker than in the previous step. The thickness of a simple plaster is from 10 to 20 mm.
The penultimate stage is called "covering", i.e. all irregularities must be smoothed out. And the final step will be grouting. No solution is used here anymore. The master must manually smooth out all the irregularities in the plaster in a circular motion.
Decorative plastering techniques
If it was decided to use plaster as the main wall covering, then most likely you will want to do it in an unusual way. There are several common and very easy application techniques.
This technique is done with a rubber or metal spatula. The plaster is applied in thin layers 5-7 times.
Apply and rub layers in different directions. Due to this technique, under light from different angles, the plaster will look like silk.
If there is no experience, but you want to create a beautiful embossed wall, then there is an easy optionapplying plaster. It is best to use a notched trowel.
First, the first layer is applied, it should be even, the subsequent ones are made in circular or semicircular movements.
Another option for applying the simplest decorative plaster is a print. It is made with a plastic film. Here you can use your imagination: you can use the film folded, unfolded or crumpled. It should be applied to wet soil, after it dries, remove the film. The result is a beautiful and unique drawing.
Now the method of applying plaster with a metal trowel is becoming popular. This method is called "bark beetle". To make a beautiful textured pattern, you can apply plaster from left to right, top to bottom, in a circular motion. And, of course, the easiest way is to buy a special roller and just walk it along the walls.
Don't forget that you can decorate your walls in any way you like, because this is not a wallpaper with a pattern already created. You can make the wall solid or even draw something special.
For example, there is a great way to make an unusual drawing with your own hands:
- Purchase wallpaper with the pattern you like.
- Cut this pattern carefully using scissors.
- Then apply the cut-out wallpaper to the wall where 2-3 even coats of plaster have been applied.
- Apply another layer of plaster over the wallpaper. As a result, when removing the wallpaper, you can get the desired pattern on the wall.
But such work requires some skill, so you can first practice on some section of the wall.
Currently, plaster on the walls is quite popular. It can be found in a variety of variations. Someone is ready to pay a rather big amount to the master so that everything in his house is beautiful and tidy, others take everything into their own hands and do the repairs themselves. And often they do just as well as experienced craftsmen.
However, it must be taken into account that not everyone has sufficient knowledge and skills to perform the work correctly. Often, ignoring elementary rules, you can not only do the job poorly, but also ruin the entire wall, which will entail additional costs for subsequent repairs.
Therefore, if there is any doubt about the implementation of simple plaster, it is recommended to immediately contact specialists who can complete the work as soon as possible, and the owner will only have to enjoy the finished result.