When building walls, ceilings made of brick, stone, concrete, ceramic and foam blocks, masonry mortars cannot be dispensed with. You can cook them yourself. But increasingly, professional builders and amateurs use dry masonry mixes.
What affects the strength of masonry? Which manufacturer's mixes will provide durable, high-quality and even crack-free surfaces?
What affects the quality of masonry
The main components that make up any solution are sand, cement, crushed stone and water. The secret to durable masonry lies in the proportions of these materials.
The quality of the mortar and the final result of the work are influenced by the environment and the material that is laid with the mortar. So, a brick draws water out of it, and if there is not enough of it, the mortar will begin to crumble after drying.
Masonry work should be carried out at such a temperature that the mixture has time to harden and dry.
Masonry mixes havedifferent purposes, so their composition is different. They can be for porous and smooth bricks, stoves, colored - decorative. And although their basis is traditional - cleaned and washed sand, masonry mixtures are distinguished by the presence of various additives.
They all fall into two categories:
- General construction. They are used in the construction of walls. The most common are M150 and M200. On their basis, each of the companies producing dry mixes produces its own version, introducing some additives. As a result, the final product differs in a number of ways.
- Special. They are used for the construction of furnaces, pools, pipes.
For example, stove mixes contain refractory clay, which will allow the wall to withstand temperatures up to 1700 degrees.
Preparing the solution
Preparing a solution from dry mixes is very easy, fast and convenient. It is enough to pour in the amount of water provided for in the instructions, pour the powder (or part of it) into it and mix thoroughly. You can do this several times to make the mass homogeneous. Stir by hand or with power tools.
The prepared solution is not left for the second day. Its shelf life is a couple of hours.
- One of the main characteristics of the solution is a set of strength. The speed of the process depends on the ambient temperature and the quality of the material from which the masonry is made. Strength is gained faster when laying porous bricks, slower when working withstone or smooth clinker bricks.
- Plasticity. If it is high, then the solution can be laid in a thinner layer. This is not only economical, but also helps to avoid the formation of cold bridges.
- The ability to resist separation, shift.
The consumption of the mixture depends both on the thickness of the wall and on the thickness of the applied layer, which can be from 6 mm to 40 mm. On average, no more than 45 kg of mortar is consumed per square meter.
Before laying bricks or other materials, you need to prepare the base. The place where the solution will be laid must be clean from grease, dust, paint. It should be strong and solid, not crumble.
Concrete wall repair
First, prepare the surface, then fill all the cracks and cracks with mortar. Do this with a spatula or throw a trowel. To do this, the wall is first moistened with water, if it is very smooth, then notches are made on it. The solution is applied in thin layers. After applying each layer of the mixture, it is leveled. Wait for it to dry before applying the next one.
The mixture is poured with water, mixed thoroughly and used within 2 hours.
BROZEX masonry mixes, in addition to ordinary sand and cement, include polymer and mineral additives. They increase the plasticity and strength of the solution, it becomes moisture resistant.
The solution is used at a temperature of 10 to 25 degrees Celsius on the day of masonry. Two days after completionwork should not be frost.
Those who used mixtures say: it is very easy to prepare a solution. The dry masonry mixture is dissolved with the amount of water specified in the recommendations on the package, thoroughly mixed. Wait ten minutes until all components get wet and swell. After this period, the mixture is ready for use.
BROZEX masonry mixes qualitatively fill all seams, regardless of whether they are vertical or horizontal - this is confirmed by buyers. The compositions are moisture resistant, durable. The brand has many different mixtures in order to be able to produce different types of masonry.
Applied for laying bricks on the facades of buildings. When buying a facing brick, which comes in various colors, a color mixture is also selected to match it. A house built with these mixtures will look beautiful and stylish.
PEREL color mixtures are of high quality. Many buyers note a rich selection of colors - there are 14 shades. There are winter and summer options. Summer can be used up to 30 degrees of heat, winter - from -5 to +10 degrees.
- fractional sand;
- cement without additives;
- mineral pigments;
- polymer additives.
Different brands of these mixtures are chosen depending on the type of brick, its water absorption. They are divided into three types with rates up to 5, 12 and 15 percent. The first is intended for clinker bricks, the second - for high-quality imported, the third -for most domestic species. Those who have used these mixtures note their high reliability.
"PEREL" is sold packed in special bags, packaged in 50 kg. Each has instructions for use.
Mix De Luxe M-200
Mounting and masonry mixture is used when;
- concreting floors and stairs;
- treatment of masonry joints.
Laying is done at a temperature not lower than 5 degrees Celsius. Humidity should not exceed 80%.
The surface is cleaned of various layers, traces of paint, oil stains are removed. The porous part is treated with a primer. It must be allowed to dry before work begins. The specialist warns that in order for the masonry to turn out to be of high quality, it is necessary that the base does not deform.
Masonry mixes for stoves and fireplaces
Special knowledge and skills require the construction of structures that will come into contact with fire.
Mortar to be laid:
- not too greasy so it doesn't crack after drying and doesn't get enough sleep.
It should be taken into account that the refractory brick from which the furnaces are laid expands upon contact with fire. In order for the mortar not to crumble, the masonry mixture for bricks must have good elasticity. It is achieved by introducing a plasticizer into the composition of the mixture. This is a substance that reduces the required amount of material by 1/6. Plasticizers can be made on melamine resins and based oncarboxylates.
There are more effective means - superplasticizers. In our market, they are exclusively imported. These are Mapeplast, Pozzolit, Mareplast and the most popular C-3 naphthalene lignosulfonate. Experts recommend using such mixtures, because their introduction into the solution increases its plasticity and mobility.
When working with plasticizers, you need to consider that they are harmful to he alth, because they contain phenols.
Fireplace and stove masonry mixes expand to the same extent as the brick they are built from. Therefore, when heated, the wall will not crack.
Kiln laying should not be done in frosty weather. Water must be taken tap to avoid accidental ingress of mineral additives from the untreated. Combine water and mixture, stirring several times to make it homogeneous. The warm masonry mixture turns out to be quite liquid and is squeezed out after laying the brick with a slight pressure. Keep in mind that it freezes very quickly. But five days after the masonry is completed, the temperature in the room should be above zero. And it completely seizes and dries everything in three weeks.
Sold mixture in bags of 25 kg. One will be enough to lay 35 pieces of bricks.
PLITONIT Mix "SuperFireplace"
This mixture is used to build and repair stoves and fireplaces. High temperature resistance, strength, adhesion, resistance to moisture and cracking - qualities that distinguish PLITONIT mixtures"SuperFireplace" from the usual. It is these properties of the composition that buyers are talking about. The plasticity of the solution makes it possible to make laying quickly and efficiently, using the minimum amount of material.
Laying bricks in winter
Brick laying is usually stopped as the temperature drops. But there are substances and technologies that allow you to perform it in the winter.
The method of freezing masonry is that the brick is laid using a heated mortar. Immediately after laying, it freezes in the seams and hardens a little, so it does not collapse. And in the spring, when the freezing process occurs on its own, it begins to harden. But it may not be in time, as a building constructed in this way may collapse from overload. After all, almost all the masonry will be damp.
Therefore, in this way it is impossible to build houses higher than 15 m in height. And the building below is heavily controlled.
The second method of winter masonry is to add reagents to the solution that prevent the water from freezing. As a result, the mortar hardens at lower temperatures.
Advantage of masonry mixes
- No need to look for ingredients in different places. This is especially true for sand, which can often only be purchased in large quantities. The assembly and masonry mixture is available at any hardware store.
- Only the right amount of solution can be prepared. To do this, not all packaging is dissolved. If it is not enough, you can quickly stir more.