Water supply systems are called engineering communications, the components of which are devices designed to take water from any source, transport it and supply it to the consumer. Such networks must, of course, be equipped and operated in compliance with certain standards. Water supply systems can be classified according to several criteria.
Varieties by purpose
The main types of water supply systems on this basis are:
fire extinguishing systems.
Structurally, such communications are divided into internal and external. The first type of water pipelines is equipped inside the building.
The classification of water supply systems laid inside houses is provided as follows:
Equipment for heating liquid in HW systems can be equipped both in separate boiler houses and directly in the buildings themselves (boilers). In this case, the classification of hot water supply systems can be as follows:
open networks with technical water from the heating system;
closed networks with heated drinking water.
Internal networks are mounted on the street. In this case, the pipes are laid along trenches dug in advance. In order to avoid freezing in winter, they are also usually carefully insulated, for example, using mineral wool.
Housekeeping and drinking systems
What classification of water supply systems can be carried out according to purpose, we have thus found out. But what are the varieties of household, industrial and fire networks themselves?
Household and drinking systems are used to supply drinking water in a centralized manner, which can also be used for domestic needs. The requirements for the installation of such engineering systems are very stringent. Water supplied to settlements must, of course, meet all sanitary safety standards.
Classification of water supply systems for household and drinking purposes is provided for by the following features:
by territorial scope;
kind of source;
type of water intake facilities.
Also, such networks candiffer in the way water is supplied to the consumer.
Varieties of household systems
In the first case, a distinction is made between urban and rural water supply systems. Unlike industrial and fire networks, in terms of territorial coverage, household and drinking communications can only be centralized. The only exceptions are the networks of this variety, mounted outside the city. In some cases, for example, owners of country houses in one village can equip artesian wells in a pool. This type of water supply belongs to the local group.
Sources for the intake of water intended for supply to settlements can be:
surface - lakes, rivers;
underground - wells, springs.
Water intake facilities in such systems are used as follows:
The first type of facilities for providing water to cities and towns is most often equipped. Mine wells for these purposes are used much less frequently. They can serve both for receiving groundwater lying at great depths, and groundwater with a low thickness of the horizon. Capture chambers are generally installed only when spring water needs to be used for the object.
GW and HB networks
Classification of cold and hot domestic water supply systems can also be carried out according to the method of supply. In this case, distinguishgravity and pressure communications. In this case, the latter type of networks is used to provide water to cities and towns. Gravity systems are mounted mainly only in private homes. In this case, a storage tank is installed in the attic of the building.
Classification of industrial water supply systems
Like household systems, such engineering communications can be divided according to the type of source and the type of water intake. Water is supplied to industrial enterprises usually from surface sources. But sometimes wells can also be used for this purpose.
The specifics of some enterprises also necessitates the supply of workshops with water, the quality of which surpasses even drinking water. Therefore, at the sampling stations in this case, special equipment is installed, designed for its most thorough cleaning. This is especially true when water is taken from surface sources.
On what other grounds can they be subdivided
Classification of industrial water supply systems can also be made according to the method of using the liquid. In this regard, networks of plants and factories are:
In the first type of system, water is first supplied to the consumer for use. Then, if necessary, it is cleaned and discharged into the sewer. In serial networks, the water supply circulates through several workshops of the enterprise. Such a system is consideredmuch more economical than straight through.
In circulating networks, water is reused at the enterprise. If it heats up during use, it is cooled in special installations before a new cycle. In some cases, water may be further purified before reuse. When using such a scheme, partial losses inevitably occur. Therefore, water in systems of this type has to be supplemented from time to time.
Classification of fire water supply systems
Such water pipelines are usually equipped at fire hazardous enterprises. These can be, for example, cotton warehouses, oil depots, gas storages, timber exchanges, etc. Such systems, in turn, can be:
In systems of the first type, the pressure required to extinguish a fire is created by mobile pumps. At the same time, according to the standards, its indicator should be at least 10 m. In high-pressure networks, water is supplied to the fire site directly from the hydrants through the sleeves. The pressure in such systems at the shafts is created by stationary pumps installed at the station.
Degree of reliability
On this basis, the classification of water supply systems is provided as follows:
Systems of category I. In this case, the standards allow the reduction of water supply for household and drinking needs by no more than 30% of the design consumption, and for production -on an emergency schedule. In this case, the supply can be reduced by a maximum of 3 days. A break in the supply in such networks is allowed only to turn off the damaged equipment and turn on the backup. In any case, this period of time should not exceed 10 minutes.
Networks of the II category. In such communications, the reduction in supply can be the same as in systems of category I, but for a maximum of 10 days. In addition, the break in serving can be no more than 6 hours.
Systems of category III. In this case, the reduction in supply is allowed for 15 days. In this case, the break can last 24 hours.
In settlements with the number of inhabitants N > 50×103, category I systems are being equipped. Cities and towns with 5×103 < N < 50×103 belong to category II. In settlements with N < 5 × 103, networks of category III are carried out. Water supply elements, damage to which can disrupt the supply of water for fire extinguishing, according to the regulations, always belong to category I.