The quality of the road network in our country leaves much to be desired. The construction of transport infrastructure in some areas is not feasible for economic reasons. With the movement of people and goods in such areas, vehicles operating on other physical principles will do just fine. Do-it-yourself full-size hovercraft cannot be built in artisanal conditions, but scale models are quite possible.
Vehicles of this type are capable of moving on any relatively flat surface. It can be an open field, a pond, and even a swamp. It is worth noting that on such surfaces unsuitable for other vehicles, the SVP is able to develop a fairly high speed. The main disadvantage of such transport is the need for large energy costs to create an air cushion.and, as a result, high fuel consumption.
Physical principles of SVP operation
The high permeability of vehicles of this type is provided by the low specific pressure that it exerts on the surface. This is explained quite simply: the contact area of the vehicle is equal to or even exceeds the area of the vehicle itself. In encyclopedic dictionaries, SVPs are defined as ships with a dynamically generated support rod.
Large and small hovercraft hover above the surface at a height of 100 to 150 mm. In a special device under the housing, excess air pressure is created. The machine breaks away from the support and loses mechanical contact with it, as a result of which the movement resistance becomes minimal. The main energy costs are spent on maintaining the air cushion and accelerating the device in a horizontal plane.
Drawing up a project: choosing a working scheme
For the production of an operating model of the SVP, it is necessary to choose an effective hull design for the given conditions. Drawings of hovercraft can be found on specialized resources, where patents are posted with a detailed description of various schemes and methods for their implementation. Practice shows that one of the most successful options for media such as water and hard ground is the chamber method of forming an air cushion.
In our model, a classic two-engine scheme with one blower will be implementedpower drive and one pusher. Small-sized do-it-yourself hovercraft made, in fact, are toys-copies of large devices. However, they clearly demonstrate the advantages of using such vehicles over others.
Manufacture of the ship's hull
When choosing a material for a ship's hull, the main criteria are ease of processing and low specific gravity. Homemade hovercraft are classified as amphibious, which means that in the event of an unauthorized stop, flooding will not occur. The ship's hull is sawn out of plywood (4 mm thick) according to a pre-prepared pattern. A jigsaw is used to perform this operation.
Hovercraft has superstructures that are best made from Styrofoam to reduce weight. To give them a greater external resemblance to the original, the parts are glued on the outside with foam plastic and painted. Cabin windows are made of transparent plastic, and the rest of the parts are cut from polymers and bent from wire. Maximum detail is the key to similarity with the prototype.
Finishing the air chamber
The skirt is made of dense fabric made of polymer waterproof fiber. Cutting is carried out according to the drawing. If you do not have experience transferring sketches to paper manually, then they can be printed on a large-format printer on thick paper, and then cut out with ordinary scissors. The prepared parts are sewn together, the seams shouldbe double and tight.
Do-it-yourself hovercraft, before the injection engine is turned on, the hull rests on the ground. The skirt is partially rumpled and is located under it. The parts are glued with waterproof glue, the joint is closed by the body of the superstructure. This connection provides high reliability and allows you to make mounting joints invisible. Other external parts are also made of polymeric materials: propeller diffuser guards and the like.
There are two engines in the power plant: a blower and a main engine. The model uses brushless electric motors and two-bladed propellers. Remote control of them is carried out using a special regulator. The power source for the power plant are two batteries with a total capacity of 3000 mAh. Their charge is enough for half an hour of using the model.
Hovercraft are controlled remotely via radio. All components of the system - radio transmitter, receiver, servos - are prefabricated. Installation, connection and testing of them is carried out in accordance with the instructions. After the power is turned on, the motors are trial run with a gradual increase in power until a stable air cushion is formed.
SVP model management
Hovercraft, made by hand, as noted above, have a remote control via the VHF channel. In practice it looks likeas follows: in the hands of the owner is a radio transmitter. The engines are started by pressing the appropriate button. Joystick controls the speed and direction of movement. The machine is easy to maneuver and maintains a course quite accurately.
Tests have shown that the hovercraft confidently moves on a relatively flat surface: on water and on land with equal ease. The toy will become a favorite entertainment for a child aged 7-8 years old with fairly developed fine motor skills of the fingers.