One can only marvel at how rapidly the modern construction industry is developing. Only until recently, cement-sand concrete mortars were the only and indispensable materials for all construction needs, both industrial and residential buildings. Today, on the basis of cement material, new mortars are being created that are superior in quality to ordinary cement-sand concrete.
Foundation in construction
How to build a house with your own hands to serve both your grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Today, quality construction is not very cheap, but it will be justified by its durability if the house is laid on a solid foundation. The first step in laying a building, including a brick one, is the preparation of the construction site and the construction of a solid foundation. Basically, a strip deep foundation is being built using modern waterproofing technology. But before laying the housevery important work is being done to create a foundation - a stone-sand cushion.
The choice of foundation design and the method of how to pour the foundation under the house with your own hands depends on the indicators of geodetic and geological measurements of the soil of the site. On hard soils, a less massive foundation is installed, and on soft, sandy or wet soils, a more stable one with reliable waterproofing of the lower part is needed. There are several types of foundation structures for individual one-story and multi-story buildings. This is a tape, and a pile, and a do-it-yourself foundation for a house with a continuous pour of the entire base. As already mentioned, the design must be selected according to the geodetic indicators of the soil of the land.
Stone-sand cushion foundation
In general, any building consists of two parts - underground and ground. If during the geological survey it was determined that the soil of the land plot is not hard enough, then a stone-sand cushion should be created under the entire building. If basements are not provided, the entire area for the house is deepened a little with their own hands and covered with the first layer of large-stone gravel.
The second layer is filled with finer gravel or sand, which will compact the space between large stones. The surface of the entire area under the building is leveled with a finishing layer of fine gravel. To strengthen the base of the building, in addition to the sand cover, it is necessary to create a reinforced concrete cover for the base of the entire building. Placed on the surface of the sand layermetal reinforcement mesh. A reliable foundation is created for a heavy brick house and a subfloor. To build a house in unreliable soils, you need to choose soil below the freezing point and fill the pit with several layers of stone and gravel, as well as sand, which will compact the stone cushion and create a solid foundation for the subsequent pouring of the foundation of the house with your hands.
Based on the fact that the base is underground under the constant influence of moisture and groundwater, it must be protected from this. Waterproofing will protect the underside of the building from moisture, which is destructive to almost all building materials made from cement and sand. A waterproofing material is laid at the bottom of the excavated trench. But in modern construction, the Megatron additive is mixed into the concrete solution, which gives concrete special strength and makes it possible to obtain high-quality material of special strength with high frost resistance and moisture resistance.
A large list of waterproofing materials is presented on the modern market. Fused and non-fused films, bituminous and polymeric ones are very popular. There are a large number of drainage waterproofing mastics. In addition to treating the walls with waterproofing materials, the waterproofing of the foundation is carried out by drainage channels that drain groundwater. Drainage trays and a blind area around the building can be effective in combating groundwater.
Bitumen roofing material
Bituminous roofing material of high quality is used as waterproofing. After the foundation has been erected and the formwork removed, the outer walls are protected from water and moisture with bituminous waterproofing mastic. She coats the outer and inner walls several times. Each layer of waterproofing mastic is applied after drying. In soils with high moisture, additional waterproofing of the walls is carried out using bituminous roofing material or PVC waterproofing films. Bituminous roofing material is produced in the process of impregnation of cardboard sheets with polyester fiberglass and cellulose substances. Polyester fibers are highly water-resistant, tear-resistant and temperature-resistant.
The type of roofing material depends on what polyester substances the cardboard sheets are impregnated with:
- Rubemast is a material made from cardboard.
- Euroroofing material is a synthetic material made for waterproofing.
- Roofing material-toll - cardboard impregnated with oil products, which is sprayed on both sides.
- Glass roofing material - fiberglass impregnated with synthetic polyester substances.
For waterproofing, the film is glued to the walls with a waterproofing adhesive solution to the entire height of the foundation, starting from the bottom. For reliable waterproofing, it is desirable to connect the waterproofing film laid on the bottom with the one that is glued to the side walls. For fastening waterproofing materials, waterproofing is used.adhesive mastic based on synthetic fillers.
Tightness in waterproofing works is very important. Protecting the house from water and moisture has several features associated with areas that can be waterproofed. In every modern house there are several areas and points that are subject to mandatory waterproofing. First of all, it is the foundation of the building, which is mostly underground. Waterproofing is carried out around the entire perimeter using waterproofing mastics or bituminous roofing materials.
There are a large number of varieties of insulating film.
- Shrink wrap.
- BOPP waterproofing film.
- Polyethylene foam.
- Stretch tape.
- PVC\PE film.
- Plasticized film.
- Bubble wrap.
In foundation construction, waterproofing film is used to insulate the underground part and the roof. For waterproofing the foundation, a roll film is mainly used, which serves as protection against groundwater. This is an intermediate layer between the soil and the main waterproofing material, or between the insulation and the concrete screed.
If mastic is used for waterproofing, then it must be coated with it in several layers with each layer drying. When using roofing felt waterproofing, roofing felt sheets are overlapped and glued together with adhesive tape and adhesive waterproofing mastic. The same is true for other points ifthe foundation for the house is being built with their own hands. This is roof waterproofing, and waterproofing of insulating materials, which are used to insulate walls, floors and floors. But for polyvinyl chloride materials, films and membranes that are used for roof waterproofing, in addition to the tightness of their coating, ventilation of the surface on which condensed moisture is collected is also necessary. For this, ventilated facades and roofs are created, when a ventilation gap is left between the roofing material and the flooring, through which air circulates to dry the moisture condensed on the surface of the film.
Waterproofing mastics for today occupy the main place in waterproofing works. Their convenience is that hard-to-reach areas can be waterproofed with mastic. If you are building a strip foundation for a house with your own hands, then waterproofing mastic is used to protect basements and other parts. There are many types of such material. This is a liquid membrane, Technikol mastic, bitumen and polymer mastic.
Concrete building foundation formwork
Building a foundation formwork for a house with your own hands has a standard look. For formwork, long boards with a thickness of 40 mm or more are selected. Solid shields are created from them, which are reinforced with wooden slats at a distance of at least one meter. If boards with a smaller section are used for boards, then the fastening strips are placed more densely to prevent bending of the formwork board from the pressure of the cement mortar. Formwork panels are installed in the trench in a continuous line alongcircles. At the corners, they are joined at the ends with an overlap and fastened with large nails or self-tapping screws. For additional fastening of the formwork panels, stakes are used that go deep into the ground along the entire perimeter from the outside of the formwork.
Strengthening the outer perimeter of the foundation formwork for the house with your own hands can be fastened with a transverse crossbar that connects the stakes facing each other. They hold the formwork panels, supported on the outer side by slope rails, which abut one end against the stake, and the other against the ground. To protect the formwork from compression inside, along the entire perimeter, spacer bars are installed between the shields at the bottom of the trench. In addition to boards, other materials can be used to build formwork.
There are also ready-made collapsible formwork panels made of metal sheets for their repeated use. Sometimes, when building a foundation for a house with your own hands, a non-removable formwork made of polyvinyl chloride materials is used, from which ready-made formwork blocks that are interconnected are created, which are assembled into a strong formwork for pouring concrete. Such forms of PVC formwork simultaneously serve as a facing and waterproofing material.
Preparatory work for pouring the foundation
With a solution prepared directly at the construction site from individual ingredients, or with a ready-made composition prepared in industrial autoclaves, we fill the foundation in several stages. The first is the preparation and constructionformwork. For it, boards, plywood shields and other materials are used, from which you can build a strong chute for pouring concrete
Second - backfilling the bottom of the trench with a stone-sand cushion. How is the foundation for the house poured with your own hands to create a reliable foundation so that after a few years the foundation does not float? What rules must be followed? As a backfill for the base of the strip foundation for the house, we fill up with chipped and cobblestone, chipped brick and gravel with our own hands. At the bottom of the trench, before backfilling, we lay several layers of waterproofing film. Also, this material is laid in moist soil along the walls of an already finished foundation.
Next there will be a step-by-step filling instruction:
- Dig a trench to a depth below freezing by 0.5 m.
- Building a foundation formwork for a house with your own hands.
- Waterproofing the bottom, if flooded
- Backfilling the trench with a stone-sand cushion, so that during operation you do not have to do it often after building a house.
- Preparation of high-quality concrete mortar, if you are doing the foundation for the house with your own hands.
Step-by-step instructions will help you better understand all the stages of work.
Cement mortar for pouring the foundation
Materials such as cement and gravel are used to make concrete. To strengthen the base of the building, sometimes synthetic fillers are added to the mortar to give the concrete mortar more viscous qualities and increase resistance tomoisture. And in the northern regions, for the stability of the concrete solution to low temperatures, before pouring the foundation, fillers are added that increase the frost resistance of the material. For the preparation of ordinary cement mortar, high grades of cement are used, not lower than M400. The proportion is calculated as follows: 1 part of cement to 1.6 parts of sand and 3.2 parts of crushed stone.
The higher the grade of cement, the greater the amount of sand. When building a foundation for a house with your own hands, you need to familiarize yourself with the step-by-step instructions in advance. We prepare concrete for pouring in separate containers. Without adding water, cement and sand are mixed until a homogeneous dry mass is created. After mixing, pure water is added in small portions until a thick, viscous mass is created. The process of pouring and repairing the foundation of the house with your own hands is carried out simultaneously along the perimeter of the building. An electric vibrator is used to compact the poured solution. In the absence of this tool, concrete compaction is done manually using a metal rod with a thickened nozzle.
Filling the strip foundation
The main thing in laying the foundation is the assessment of the freezing point. It is necessary that the foundation be laid below freezing by 0.5 meters. This will protect the basement and the house from the effects of frost. Equally important is groundwater protection. And if in the course of the geology of the site the presence of groundwater was revealed, then it is advisable to make a drainage drainage system at the level of the lowerparts of the trench. Drainage trenches are laid at an angle to the underground water flow, covering the building, with drainage outside the house. Do-it-yourself strip foundation for a house needs to be poured with a concrete mortar with a high grade of high-quality cement. When using monolithic finished beams, reliable double or even triple waterproofing of the joints between the beams horizontally and vertically is needed.
How to pour the foundation for a house with your own hands? When the trench has been backfilled, a check is made of the fastening of the formwork. To prevent the concrete mortar from squeezing out the boards, the formwork is additionally reinforced with supports from the outer walls of the formwork. In the case of the construction of a large, multi-storey building, concrete is reinforced using reinforcement. For formwork under a strip foundation, boards of at least 40 mm thick are needed. Regarding the length, the longer the formwork boards, the faster and better the installation of the formwork.
Concrete for pouring strip foundations
Building the foundation of a house with your own hands requires high-quality materials not only for laying walls, but also for auxiliary work. For formwork, shields are fastened to the height of the foundation. The formwork should be a strong wooden trough into which concrete is poured. In order for the concrete solution not to burst the formwork to the sides, both sides of it are fastened with jumpers and spacers from the inside. To install the shields, additional fastening with slope rails on both sides of the formwork is used, the shields are supported by oblique supports. ATthe created gutter is poured with a mortar of concrete mixture of cement and sand.
Proportion of cement, gravel, sand
- Concrete grade 100 - 1:4, 1:6, 1 (M400 cement, sand, gravel).
- Concrete 200 - 1:2, 5:4, 2 (M400 cement, sand, gravel).
- Concrete 300 - 1;1, 7:3, 2 (M400 cement, sand, gravel).
- Concrete 400 - 1:1, 1:2, 4 (M400 cement, sand, gravel).
For grade 500 cement, the amount of sand and gravel is increased by 1, 1. Accordingly, for grade M300 cement, the amount of sand and gravel is reduced by 1, 2. If you need to strengthen the foundation for a house with your own hands under a building of several floors, it is made reinforcement of the foundation with a metal reinforcing mesh welded from reinforcement with a cross section of 20-25 mm.
Foundation on piles
The do-it-yourself column foundation of a house (pile foundation) is very economical and practical, especially in unfavorable liquid and weak soils, when there is a danger of abundant groundwater. In fact, there are several technologies for building a pile foundation. How to build a house with your own hands from the foundation? First of all, it is necessary to say about the construction of a pile foundation on ready-made industrial reinforced concrete piles, made during the construction process, when they are created by reinforcing and pouring concrete at the construction site.
For pouring piles, holes are dug at least 1.5 m deep along the perimeter of the building in the places indicated in the project. Drilling holes for piles can be done with a garden drill or manually. In eachdug pit, a formwork is created for piles to the desired height. The formwork is reinforced with slopes and braces. The bottom of each pit is covered with river gravel mixed with coarse sand. To protect the piles from groundwater, each pile is waterproofed. For this, a waterproofing film or bituminous roofing material is used. In regions with high soil moisture, waterproofing of piles is carried out after they are fully manufactured. Each pile is smeared with mastic and tied with a film or roofing felt, and then the circumference of the pit is covered with river gravel or coarse sand.
Metal piles "Fundex"
It is easy and high quality to make a pile foundation for a house with your own hands (with step-by-step instructions) on Fundex screw piles. They, like screws, are twisted to a sufficient depth to create a reliable support. Special blades on screw piles do not loosen the soil, but compact and create a reliable fastening of piles in any soil.
Fundex screw piles are an excellent foundation for a house. They are coated with an anti-corrosion two-component composition, which is not disturbed when screwing the piles, which guarantees a hundred-year operation. Installation of these elements does not require any equipment. Everything is done by hand in one working day. When developing a strip foundation on piles, all components of the loads on the foundation must be taken into account. This is the weight of the house, and the buoyancy of the soil and the characteristics of the soil.
Concrete piles are more reliable but require more labor. For concrete piles when building a foundation for a house with their ownhands, you need to drill a hole up to 30 cm in diameter to a depth of 2 m. When building a private house, the bottom of the well is covered with gravel or crushed stone as a stone cushion. Roofing cups are laid in the holes for waterproofing the piles, reinforcing bars are inserted and poured with concrete mortar. To strengthen the piles, they are bundled with trenches using sand and gravel, on which the formwork is installed.