In addition to the usual turnip, on the plots of domestic gardeners you can often see an unusually useful perennial onion. It is this variety that opens the vitamin spring season, releasing its green leaves, almost the very first in the garden. The features of perennial bows include, first of all, unpretentious care and high yields.
There are several types of perennial bows. Of course, all of them, like any other garden crops, require watering, loosening and fertilizing. However, in general, caring for them is practically no different from caring for ordinary turnips. The plants are related, and there are actually not so many differences between them. Turnip and other annuals are grown mainly for their large and juicy bulbs. Perennials are planted in the garden for the sake of leaves - on greenery. The latter is usually cut off 2-3 times per season.
The only distinguishing feature of perennial onions from ordinary ones is the increased demands on the quality of the soil. Such crops are planted most often on loamyand sandy nutrient soils. The acidity of the soil should be close to neutral. If this indicator is 5.5, lime should already be applied to the ground.
Sometimes perennial onions are also planted on sandy soils. However, on such soils, plants produce a lot of flower stalks and do not give a very good yield of leaves.
In the same place, perennial onions usually grow 2-4 years. Then it needs to be planted again, as the quality of greenery begins to deteriorate. The pen not only shrinks, but also loses its characteristic rich taste.
Varieties of perennial onions, unfortunately, are very few. But there are just a huge number of its varieties. To date, more than 600 of them are known. But, of course, not all of them are grown in vegetable gardens and orchards. The most common and popular types of perennial onions are:
This variety has gained popularity in our country recently. The motherland of the batun is China. In this country, it is still found even in the wild. This perennial bow is very popular in Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam. In another way, it is called "winter", "sandy", "fussy".
The best predecessors for this onion are tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage and cucumbers. Batun is usually planted on moist soils (without stagnant water). The earth is dug up on a bayonet before plantingshovels.
Grow in the same place, this variety can one, two or three years. In the first two cases, onions are planted in the spring (as early as possible). With a three-year cultivation, the beds are sown from mid-summer until October.
How to grow onions
To speed up germination, the seeds of this crop are usually soaked for 24 hours. During this time, they have time to swell well. Water during soaking is changed 2-3 times. After swelling, the seeds are taken out of the saucer and dried.
Onions are planted in carefully prepared beds in two to six lines. Seeds are buried in the soil by 1-2 centimeters. The distance between rows and individual plants should be about 18-20 cm.
Care for onion-batun consists in periodic watering and feeding. For the first time, the soil in the garden is fertilized in the spring before planting the seeds. In this case, mineral fertilizer is used. In the future, top dressing is carried out after each cut of the pen. In this case, a mullein diluted with water would be an excellent feeding option. The perennial onion-batun also responds very well to the ash solution. It is not necessary to water the bushes too often. The soil under this plant is usually moistened only during prolonged drought. The crust formed after rain is broken with a rake.
In food, the leaves of this onion can be used after they reach a height of 10-15 cm. Plants are cut at the very base, leaving two or three arrows on the seeds. After a while, the leaves grow back. During the season, you can get 2-3 from a batunharvest.
Tiered Perennial Bow
This variety has one very unusual feature. Tiered onions do not produce seeds. Therefore, it is propagated exclusively vegetatively. Instead of seeds, 2-3 tiers of small air bulbs grow on the inflorescence. They are planted in the soil immediately after harvesting, as they have a very poor keeping quality. In another way, a multi-tiered bow is also called “viviparous”, “horned” and “Egyptian”. Its leaves are hollow, can reach a length of 50 cm.
Unlike batun, the bulbs of this variety do not have a dormant period. They begin to form leaves while still on the mother plant. The features of this variety include, among other things, very early maturation. A multi-tiered bow releases its leaves from under the ground even before a batun.
Features of cultivation
The care of this variety is also very simple. You can grow multi-tiered onions both as an annual and as a perennial. To get greenery next year, air bulbs need to be planted in the summer until mid-August. In spring, plants are fed with a complete mineral fertilizer.
In the third year after cutting the bulbs, the multi-tiered onion must be thinned out, separating the daughter bulbs. The latter can be used as planting material.
The birthplace of this species, like the batun, is Mongolia and China. In another way, fragrant onions are also called Siberian, as well as "Chinese garlic". In one place hegrow 4-5 years. For food, like other perennial onions, fragrant leaves are used. The bulbs of this plant have no commercial value. The leaves can reach a length of 25-40 cm.
How to grow
This onion can reproduce both vegetatively and by seeds. In a small area, the first method is usually used. With this method, the harvest can be obtained in the same year. Seeds are used much less often, since plants planted in this way develop much more slowly. During the summer, only 5-6 very small leaves are formed on each bush.
For any method of planting, organic and mineral fertilizers should be applied to the garden beforehand. Seeds of perennial onions of this variety are planted in rows, the distance between which should be approximately 35 centimeters. They are buried in the soil by 2 cm. Seeds can only be taken from two- and three-year-old plants.
Caring for fragrant onions is very simple. The bed should be weeded periodically. After each cut, the soil is shed with a solution of mullein. The bulbs of this crop do not have a dormant period, and they can be transplanted almost at any time.
This variety has flat, long leaves and can grow in one place for 1-2 years. The slime onion is also called "drooping" or "glandular". Its distinctive feature is not too spicy taste and somewhat more delicate leaves than other varieties. In the wild, this onion grows in Mongolia and Transbaikalia. It is also found in GornyAltai. This is perhaps the most delicious of all varieties of perennial onions known today. Its varieties, unfortunately, are extremely few. The most famous and popular among domestic gardeners is Green, bred by specialists from the Timiryazev Academy.
Like most other varieties, the slime onion prefers moist, neutral soils. It can be planted both in well-lit areas, and in partial shade. It reproduces vegetatively or by seeds. In the first case, the planting of a perennial slug onion is carried out in early spring or at the end of July. The seeding depth is very small - about 1.5 cm. Between rows leave 70 cm, between plants - 20 cm. The best predecessors for this crop are cabbage, lettuce, parsley, dill.
Feed this onion in the same way as all other perennial varieties: in the spring and after cutting the leaves. The crop is harvested 3-4 times a season.
The main distinguishing feature of this variety are very thin and not too long tubular leaves. In the second year after planting, chives begin to branch and give up to 50-100 shoots. Both the leaves of this plant and its succulent false bulbs are used for food. In our country, Altai or Siberian chives (perennial frost-resistant onions) are most often grown. Varieties Bohemia, Chemal and Medonos are among the most popular.
Features of cultivation
Unlike most varietiesperennial onions, chives are completely undemanding to the composition of the soil. It does not grow very well only where the soil is very heavily clogged with perennial weeds with a well-developed root system. It produces few seeds, and therefore most often it is propagated vegetatively. In this case, the bushes are simply divided into parts, leaving 8-10 bulbs in each. Plants are planted in rows, between which a distance of 30 cm is left.
Seeds are sown in early May or July. To speed up germination, they are first soaked and then slightly dried.
Grow this perennial onion for greens using a very simple technology. All that is needed to get a good harvest is periodic watering and top dressing, as well as loosening and thinning. Fertilize this onion usually once a season - in the middle of summer. A distinctive feature of the species is moisture-loving. Therefore, it should be watered quite often. Otherwise, the leaves will become coarse and lose their pleasant taste. Moisten the soil under this plant 3-5 times during the growing season.
Thin out chives from the first year of planting. From those bushes from which it is supposed to take seeds, the leaves are not cut. Otherwise, there will be very little planting material.
How to grow perennial onions for greens in winter
All of the varieties described above are great for forcing in the cold season. Feathers of perennial onions contain a lot of vitamins. In this regard, as well as in taste, they surpass even onion. They are planted with turf. That is, they dig a bush and divide it intoseveral parts, leaving as much land as possible. In the sod of chives, there should be about 30 onions, in other perennials - 3-5. Leaves, in the event that they have not yet withered, are cut off. Sods prepared in this way are stored in a cool place until November-December. At this time, they are transferred to prepared containers. Pots for forcing perennial onions should have a height of at least 15 cm. Light nutrient soil is poured on their bottom with a layer of 10-12 cm. Then the sods themselves are installed and lightly sprinkled on top.
As soon as sprouts appear on the surface, the pot of onions is transferred to the windowsill. It is not necessary to water the plants too often. Perennial onions are fed, the cultivation of which on the windowsill is a simple procedure, several times during the winter with a weak solution of urea (1 g per 1 liter of water). This allows for a bountiful harvest.
As you can see, this culture is very unpretentious in care - a perennial onion. Even a completely inexperienced gardener will surely be able to grow it in summer or even in winter. After all, all that is required to get a good harvest of this useful plant is to water, fertilize and loosen on time.