The goal of every vegetable grower is to get a good quality crop. Any culture has its own characteristics of cultivation. Planting and harvesting dates are interrelated. And the desire to receive products at an earlier date is understandable. There are various ways to speed up the ripening of vegetables. The choice of ultra-early varieties and hybrids, as well as the cultivation of seedlings, can reduce the time for obtaining onions. Winter onions are a relatively new and promising method that does not require special costs, allowing you to get a high-quality early turnip harvest.
Growing winter onions, planting and caring for which differ from traditional spring cultivation, is within the reach of any vegetable grower, even a beginner. This method, subject to certain technological methods and requirements, allows you to get a larger turnip compared to spring sowing onions, as well as increase its yield. Plants are more resistant todiseases and are less prone to shooting. This method contributes to obtaining early products. The maturation period is reduced by 1-1.5 months. The seedling method in terms of ripening is ahead by 2-3 weeks. There is no need to store onion sets in winter.
How to grow winter onions? The cultivation technology is based on the use of short and medium day varieties with good winter hardiness. The ratio of light and dark time of the day is a factor influencing the development of plants. This technology provides for the stimulation of turnip formation under the condition of a short day and relatively low temperatures.
When to plant winter onions? Plants should leave before winter with a stronger leaf part. The green feather must have at least seven pieces. For this, the timing of sowing seeds and planting seedlings has been determined.
Autumn period is preparatory to the cold season. Regular fertilization at this time will allow the soil to accumulate enough nutrients. Before the onset of winter, winter onions should already be well formed.
Planting and care
The described culture requires compliance with biological and technological requirements. When choosing a site, crop rotation conditions should be taken into account. Growing winter onions for several years in a row in one place is unacceptable. The best predecessors will be crops such as cereals, cruciferous families, corn, cucumber, tomato. Onions should not be planted after plants such as parsley andcelery, potatoes and beans.
The qualitative composition of the soil is important. Winter onions are placed on fertile, well-draining, low-acid soils. Before planting, mineral (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) and organic fertilizers (humus) are applied. Fresh manure should not be used. Be sure to remove weeds.
Now let's decide when to plant winter onions. Landing dates should be given special attention. The future harvest depends on their observance and the correct technology. Sowing is carried out in the period from 15 to 25 August. Sevoc are planted four weeks before the onset of stable frosts. Plants need time to take root.
Features of sowing and planting
How to plant winter onions? How the plant will overwinter depends on the correct planting. If certain rules are not followed, aimed at increasing the winter hardiness of the crop, some plants may freeze out, which will lead to a decrease in yield.
Seeds of winter onions are sown in a four-string or three-string tape method. The distance between the rows is 35 cm. Before sowing, the area for winter onions is carefully prepared. Planting and care during the sowing period is often characterized by adverse weather conditions. Usually during this period there are elevated temperatures and drought. Therefore, only high-quality seed should be used, which is treated with growth stimulants or pre-soaked.
Prepared seeds are evenly distributed in the groovesto the same depth, which is 2.5 or 3.5 cm. This value must be observed. At a shallower depth, the bottom of the onion can freeze out in winter. With its increase in the spring, the formation of the bulb will be more difficult. Plant care is simple. They are watered regularly. Monitor the soil layer, it should be loose. Weeds should not be allowed to dominate, weeding is needed.
Winter onion sets are planted in rows, the distance between which is 40 or 45 cm. The planting depth of the bulbs is 3-6 cm. A distance of 5-6 cm is maintained between them. Sets are chosen small in size up to 1 cm in diameter. It tolerates cold winters well and winter onions practically do not shoot. Planting and care must be carried out in compliance with the depth of sowing and planting. Sheltering crops for the winter also stimulates the survival of plants at low temperatures. They shouldn't be thickened. Beds of winter onions are mulched for the winter. Before that, they are spudded. Straw is used as a covering material, as well as white agrofibre.
When snow falls, snow retention is performed. With sufficiently warm winters and thaws, care should be taken to ensure that the beds do not get wet. This can lead to the death of plants.
After the snow melts, mulching material is removed from the area where winter onions grow. Perform feeding. Further care consists in loosening the row spacing and removing weeds. Produce regular hydration. This contributes to the rapidplant development.
Pest and disease control
Winter onions are disease resistant. However, even a small manifestation of a particular infection in the autumn period significantly reduces winter-hardiness and can lead to freezing of plants. Such diseases include peronosporosis. The infection overwinters on affected plants. Fungicides are used against it in the autumn. Re-processing is carried out in early spring. An exception are plants intended for a green feather. They are not processed in the spring. The main pest is the onion fly, but it does not cause significant damage to winter crops. When a pest appears, fungicides with a short period of action are used.
What varieties can be used when growing winter onions? Planting and care are designed for planting short-day plants. This requires special varieties that are different from those suitable for spring onion cultivation. The use of spring varieties is unacceptable, the plants will freeze. Most of these bulbs will throw out the arrow with the onset of spring heat. These landings can be used on a green feather. At the same time, the surviving planting material will not please the harvest.
Let's dwell on several varieties of winter onions that are popular with vegetable growers. Currently, high-quality seed material of domestic and foreign selection is on sale.
For winter cultivation, early-ripening and winter-hardy plants are distinguished by good performance. Among domesticit should be noted variety "Ellan". It differs in early ripening terms. With a fairly good yield, it is distinguished by excellent quality and a fairly large turnip. The weight of the bulbs reaches 90-100 g. They are round and slightly flattened, rich yellow in color. Plants are distinguished by friendly growth and rapid bulb formation, high resistance to low temperatures and diseases. Sowing seeds produced in late August or early September. Already in May or early June, you can start harvesting.
Winter onions provide gardeners with a quality early harvest. Variety "Zimovey" early ripening. Differs in high growth rates of aerial part and root system. High yields are combined with good bulb quality. They are round in shape and dark yellow in color. The average turnip weight is 90-120 g. It is characterized by relative resistance to major diseases. Slightly damaged by pests. Seeds are sown at the end of August. Harvest in late May or early June.
Wolf F1 hybrid
Among the varieties of foreign selection, this hybrid can be distinguished. It is early ripe, Japanese type. Has a rounded shape. Bulbs of medium size reach 60 or 80 mm in diameter. The color of the integumentary scales is golden. A marketable bulb is formed in late May or early June. The hybrid is resistant to shooting and has good winter hardiness.
Variety "Stuttgarten Risen"
This winter onion is high yielding. It was released in Germany.Differs in early terms of maturing. From the regrowth of the sevka to the ripening of a marketable turnip, 65-75 days are enough. One hundred gram bulbs are quite dense, they have excellent keeping qualities. The shape of the turnip is slightly flattened. Surface scales are yellow-brown in color. The variety is recommended for planting sets four weeks before the soil freezes.
You should also pay attention to varieties such as "Troy", "Centurion", "Hercules", "Radar".