LED is a semiconductor, which is located on a special substrate, its main function is to convert the supplied electricity into light. LED lamps are gaining popularity. They are used both for basic indoor lighting and for interior decoration. And also, many people prefer to hang LED-lamps as lighting on the street, in cars, public transport, special equipment and industry. The most common type of converter into light, of course, is a lamp. There are a variety of small LED light bulbs. They differ from each other not only in design and appearance, but also in the fact that each type has a certain installation method and its purpose.
LED light sources
The industry does not stand still, and modern lighting products are becoming more and more diverse, and the range is more diverse.Therefore, today lamps differ from the usual incandescent bulbs not only in power, size, but also in the type of base.
As soon as electronic products with LEDs began to go on sale, the price of such a novelty was beyond the reach of many. The cost was justified by savings on electricity costs, as well as bright lighting and a long service life - up to 15 years. After all, these are the main problems of the usual incandescent lamps. But over time, production has improved, somewhat simplified, new solutions have been found in the manufacture of LEDs and devices with them. In addition, huge competition began to appear in this spectrum among manufacturers and sellers. So, with the increase in offers today, LED devices have become available to every buyer. Moreover, the modern product has become an order of magnitude higher than the original quality in terms of brightness, light output and other important technical and aesthetic parameters.
Thus, by replacing the old-style light sources with small LED bulbs, you can protect yourself and your loved ones from heavy metals, mercury and other substances, without which previous lighting devices did not exist. And also the transition to a new type of lamps will significantly affect the savings in money spent on electricity. Such lamps do not emit ultraviolet radiation, and there is no ripple effect (which is bad for he alth).
One of the main elements of any type of lamp is the base. Its main role is mounting in the cartridge and tightly holding the bulb that supplies the light flux. Through the plinthelectricity is supplied to the light converter.
Lighting devices are divided into energy efficiency classes. That is why the types of socles were originally classified according to the same sign. LED devices - analogues are made on this basis. In order to change the lamp to a new one, you only need to understand what type of base is needed.
The most commonly used base in everyday life, which is designated as E27. This base is one of Edison's most common lamps. It features a threaded connection with a standard chuck and a diameter of 27 mm. The full size range by the name of the socles of this type looks like this: E40, E27, E26, E17, E14, E12, E10 and E5. The first plinth refers to industrial and street lamps, it is a plinth that is quite wide in diameter. LED light bulbs with a small base, such as E14, are popularly called minions. This type of base is most often used in small lamps such as candles for chandeliers, balls and mushrooms.
In this type of base, the connection with the cartridge is formed due to the 2 or more pins in the form of a plug located on the lamp. This type has a Latin letter designation - G, GU, GX. Usually halogen or fluorescent lamps are labeled this way, as well as their counterparts - LED lamps. The second letter means that there is a specific feature of the pins, such as thickening at the ends. So, the marking GU5.3, GU53 and GU10 indicates that the lamps have the ends of the contacts in the form of a tablet forsecure fit in the chuck. The letters X, Y, Z mean that the base for mounting in the chuck needs to be turned. With a marking of 2 letters, the lamps are used in spotlights for ceilings. And the number indicates the distance in millimeters between the contacts.
That is, LED light bulbs with a small base G9 is only 9 mm, and G4 is 4 mm between two pins. Plinths of such a plan can differ not only in distance and ends, but also in the length of the pins themselves. So, G4 has slightly denser contacts, but shorter than the G9. Usually they are used in decorative lamps, sconces and chandeliers. They usually have little power. The G13 base is commonly used in tubular type T8 fluorescent lamps. Such lamps are available under the Armstrong ceiling, double and single long or emergency.
This base is used to connect with the socket in the spotlights of linear halogen lamps. Denoted by the letter R. The number indicates the diameter of the contact in millimeters.
T-type telephone base. Such small LED bulbs are installed in switchboards with automation and control panels.
LED lamps are a complete analogue of previous lamps. But still there are certain points that you need to pay attention to:
- Size may vary significantly from those being replaced.
- LED lamps need a different transformer, the one left from halogen lamps will not work. And if you buylight bulbs for chandeliers are small LEDs that operate from 220 V, then there is no need for additional equipment at all.
- Incompatible operation with a dimmer that has been installed for gas discharge lamps and incandescent lamps. In order for it to still fully work, you just need to replace it with a remote-controlled controller. You can also purchase a dimming lamp with a built-in special microcircuit. It should be noted that the price of such a lamp will be much higher.
- If you need to replace fluorescent lamps, then before installing an electronic light source, you need to remove the ballast (ballast or electronic ballast) from the lamp. And the LED lamp is connected directly to the terminals.
Kinds of unusual mini lamps
There is a huge variety of LED lights and chandeliers on the market. In addition to standard lamps, manufacturers produce even the smallest LED bulbs for their products. Such light sources operate at a reduced voltage of 3-3.5 volts. For a group of these light sources, a transformer is installed in the device. The power of one such light bulb is not more than 0.8 watts. The miniature size is 4.8 mm. Outwardly, this is an LED, closed by a capsule - a bulb, with a base in the form of two metal pins. They are used mainly for decorative lighting.
And also such mini-lamps of different colors are available for sale. Therefore, you can always replace faulty ones with small LED bulbs in the chandelier - red, blue, green or purple. They are mainly used in New Year's garlands.They also decorate the space in the bedroom, nursery, living room.
Battery-powered small LED light bulbs are widely used. They are used to decorate dresses, costumes, balls, flowers, toys and more. They are a transparent plastic case about 3 cm long, inside of which there is an LED. Such a light bulb has a switch and is powered by two replaceable AG3 batteries (tablet). And also the choice of the buyer is given 5 colors: red, green, yellow, blue and white.
The variety of such unusual products allows you to use small LED bulbs for crafts. You can create decorative decorations for the holidays at home, on the street or in public places.
Power of LED lamps
It is generally accepted that the power consumption of LED lamps is 10 times the output power. That is, if the lamp consumes 3 watts, then its illumination level is 30 watts of a conventional incandescent lamp. This is due to the fact that the sellers of LEDs on the packaging of their products explain the benefits of the acquisition in this way. But it is not always the case. In most LED products, the LEDs are covered with a matte bulb, which takes away 15-20% of the brightness. And you also need to understand that 1 W of power goes to the driver. Thus, small LED bulbs, the power of which is 3 W when converted to Lumens - the brightness of the light flux - will be equal to 200 Lm, a maximum of 250Lm. And this is much less than the brightness of LON 30 W, in which the luminous flux is 350 Lm.
LEDs are usually covered with a frosted bulb in order to protect the eyes from heavy-duty light that is harmful to vision. Therefore, in order to choose the right replacement, you need to focus on the level of luminous flux, which is indicated on the box in lumens (lm). Usually the most powerful lamps have a larger heat sink, the main function of which is to ensure the normal operation of the diodes.
This voltage is quite low and does not pose a threat to human life. Lamps with this operating voltage are necessary for use in places of increased danger, most often used in rooms with boiler equipment.
And there are also small LED bulbs that run on 24 volts. Usually they are installed in trucks or other special vehicles for lighting with minimal energy consumption.
Lamps with reduced operating voltage are located in the kitchen area, shower room or bathroom. And they are also used in basements, to illuminate the front door from the streets or paths on the site. They work in conditions of dampness and high humidity.
Small 12 volt LED bulbs are cheaper to install. After all, low voltage absolutely does not require additional costs for a corrugated pipe or cable channel.
Disadvantageslow voltage lamps
The disadvantages of lamps that operate from low voltage include the following:
- Low voltage lamps cannot be operated directly from 220 V, so a transformer must be installed during installation. This device is not immune from breakage, regardless of the performance of the lamps. Thus, the entire electrical circuit becomes more complex and prone to malfunctions.
- Higher demand for electric current than lamps from 220 V. The difference will be noticeable if the connected lamps in the room are located at different distances, that is, the farther the lighting device, the weaker it will work.
Small 220 volt LED light bulbs are easy to mount because they don't require special additional equipment. The transformer in the LED lamp is built-in. So, a 220 W LED bulb with a GU5.3 base, in addition to LEDs, each of which consumes 1 watt, has a built-in transformer in its design that allows it to work from a 220 W network.
Even more profitable is a light bulb with an MR16 base, powered by 220 volts. Because these light sources consume an average of 3-5 watts, they do not require additional equipment during installation and the help of a specialist will not be needed during replacement. And also in comparison with halogen counterparts, which work about 2.5 thousand hours, LEDs last from 30 to 50 thousand hours.
The built-in transformer in the light bulb with the G4 base has a negative effect. Since the small size of this bulb is notallows you to install a full-fledged voltage converter in it, then usually only a capacitor and a resistor are placed in it. As a result, damage may occur to both the lamp itself and the device, lamp or other product in which it was used. And also it is not safe for humans and can cause harm in case of an accident or short circuit.
On November 23, 2009, the “Law on Energy Saving and Energy Efficiency Improvement” was issued. Since then, the original light sources have changed a lot. The lamps worked first from incandescence, then they created mercury fluorescent ones, and now they have completely replaced them with LED products. New devices are much more economical to use. The price today is affordable, and the lighting function is not inferior to previous products.
The variety of lamps on the market is great. You can purchase a small 220V LED light bulb or pick up an analogue of any old-style lamp. Manufacturers not only produce sources with all types of socles, but also create a variety of options.