Plumbing and sanitation are important elements of communications that accompany our life process. Sewerage is a system of pipes designed to remove liquid and solid waste from human activities. All sewage is sent to the septic tank through the sewerage system, where, after appropriate processing, it is discharged into water bodies.
During the operation of such systems, defects appear over time: wear, clogging, breakage. There is a need for repair or installation of sewerage. Such a need may be caused by the repair of the premises, the improvement of qualities and the change in design. Installation of the sewerage system begins with the choice of material.
Varieties of pipes according to the material of manufacture
All pipes can be divided into 4 types according to the material of manufacture:
- cast iron (metal);
Each of these varieties has its own scope, advantages and disadvantages.
Mostly used for installation of external sewerage. It is unlikely that anyone would think of laying such pipes in a residential area. These large-diameter pipes are more often used for laying common highways from houses to a septic tank, a processing site.Quite voluminous and bulky elements of the drainage system need periodic repair and replacement, as over time, the concrete walls of the pipe are destroyed by the aggressive environment of the contents.
This material has increased wear resistance, good sound insulation, durability. But for the installation of sewage, their use will entail some inconvenience. Given the large mass, it is necessary to provide for reliable fastening on the bearing surface. This is especially true for the installation of sewerage systems for risers (vertical). To prevent leakage at the joints, it is necessary to use a special material - embossing. This is the name of the cord impregnated with a moisture-repellent composition. It is tightly stuffed into the grooves of the pipes with the help of an improvised tool. When installing sewerage systems in an apartment, they are inconvenient, bulky, and it is unlikely that they will be hidden in the wall. The disadvantages include a certain fragility of cast iron. If such a pipe is accidentally hit with a heavy metal object, a crack or even a chip may appear. You have to be quite careful with them. Due to the roughness of the inner surface, dirt and debris accumulate on the walls faster, clogging occurs.
This material is widely used in modern plumbing, sewer installation. Especially in the housing stock. Compared to cast iron pipes, it has several advantages:
- large selection of sizes;
- easy fit(easily cut with a hacksaw);
- easy installation;
- large selection of related elements in the form of adapters, turns, plugs, etc.
Installation of sewerage systems using plastic pipes makes it possible to perform work for users who do not have much experience in the field of plumbing, due to the ease of assembly of the structure. Rubber rings are used in pipes for sealing. It is enough to lubricate this ring with a slippery material (soap, grease) and insert the next pipe into the previous one with a slight effort. Combined sewer installation is currently available. For example: an existing cast-iron riser with a diameter of 110 mm can easily be cut into with a 110 mm plastic pipe. For this, there are various types of rubber gaskets. Despite the variety of advantages, there are also disadvantages in the application, in particular, increased noise when sewage products pass through the pipes. However, this factor can be avoided by using rubber gaskets on the fixing clamps, as well as by using noise-absorbing and insulating insulation. The industry offers a wide range of such materials for different pipe diameters.
Sewer corrugated pipe is mainly used for laying underground utilities. They can have a fairly large diameter (up to 2 meters). Due to their design features, the installation of sewage systems using such elements can be performed without the use of corners and turns. But only with small bends. When laying in the groundgood soil compaction is required. The formation of voids leads to deformation of structural elements. To connect the siphon (or the so-called sump) to the sewer pipe, corrugated pipes of small diameter (40-50 mm) are used.
This item can be easily bent without the use of corner fittings, stretched or shortened without cutting. Thanks to the internal reinforcement, it does not pinch at the bend. It is convenient to connect the toilet sewer outlet to the system using a corrugation. It also easily bends to the desired angle and stretches to the required size. Does not corrode, has seals on both sides.
Sewerage in the apartment
At the present time, for the installation of water supply and sewerage in an apartment, preference is given to products made of plastic, metal-plastic, propylene. Each homeowner makes the choice at their own discretion. Using plastic, you can significantly save money on the purchase of the necessary elements and on installation, which can be done without the involvement of specialists.
Sewerage installation begins with the choice of the location of the plumbing equipment and, accordingly, with the selection of the necessary material and tools. To connect the apartment system to the riser, a pipe with a diameter of 110 mm is used. The same size is required for attaching the toilet. The rest of the plumbing (bidet, sink, bath, shower) and household appliances (washing machine, dishwasher) will use a pipe with a diameter of 45-50 mm. These are general recommendations. In each case, these parameters can beothers.
A prerequisite is the use of siphons.
This is a device that prevents the penetration of odors from the sewerage system into the apartment. Outwardly, it resembles a knee filled with water, which does not drain into the sewer, but works like a water seal. In practice, a situation often arises: when a large amount of water is drained simultaneously in several apartments, a vacuum is created in the riser, which draws water from the nearest siphons. And then the smell without obstacles penetrates into the apartment until the users open the tap and fill the sump with a new portion of the liquid. The phenomenon of rarefaction in the riser occurs for various reasons. Figuratively speaking, when passing through a sewer pipe, water, filling it completely over the section, acts like a piston. A vacuum is created above this "piston" if the pipe section is significantly narrowed at the exit of the riser to the roof or attic space or is simply muffled, clogged. Air does not have time to get into the system in the required volume.
To avoid such a nuisance, when installing sewer pipes, an air valve is inserted into the system in any convenient place.
This fixture opens when a vacuum occurs and allows air into the sewer system. When there is no vacuum, the valve closes by gravity.
When arranging a sewerage system in an apartment, it is necessary to observe pipe slopes in relation tohorizontal.
|Pipe diameter, mm||Slope value per 1 meter of pipe|
With a small slope, sewage products will not move through the pipe. Elevated slopes are also undesirable. The liquid will drain quickly, and the "thick" will settle, creating blockages.
Sewerage in the private sector
Installation of sewerage in a private house is in many ways similar to that discussed above. But there is a very important point. Not all private sector houses have the ability to connect to the central sewerage system due to the lack of one. The question arises: what to do in such a situation, where to drain human waste? The solution to the problem is the construction of an autonomous sewage system. The essence of such an idea is to create a cesspool where all the waste will merge.
According to the requirements of the sanitary standards of the SES, sewage waste should not fall into the ground. This is due to the rules of environmental conservation. Harmful waste, seeping into the ground, enters the groundwater, polluting them and causing damage to nature. In this case, the pit is closed.
To build such an object, an appropriate pit of the required size is dug. To determine the required volume, they are guided by the calculation: 0.8 m3per person. Bottompre-concreted. It is possible to use concrete rings of large diameter for walls. It is possible with the help of formwork to make concrete pits with walls, using reinforcement. From above, such a structure is covered with slabs or overlapping is performed in any convenient way, be sure to leave a hatch for pumping out feces with a sewage machine. When constructing walls, a window should be provided for the supply of a sewer pipe.
This type of pit is built in such a way that the liquid seeps into the ground, and the thick composition remains inside, followed by pumping. To build such a structure, you will need waterproof brick, cinder block, or other materials that can withstand moisture damage. The bottom of the pit remains open. A reliable foundation is being built along the perimeter, taking into account the fact that an aggressive liquid in the form of sewage waste will constantly be inside.
Establishing walls in the lower rows, leaving windows for seepage of liquid into the side walls. Such gaps are left up to about 1 meter in height. They are not needed above. From above, as in the previous case, an overlap is built and covered with soil to the level of the ground surface. The presence of a hatch for pumping out is mandatory.
For the construction of any kind of pits, you should consider in detail the location of the object. At the same time, the possibility of accessing a sewage truck to pump out the contents is taken into account. It is impossible to locate such structures near wells, cellars, in order to avoid leakage of unnecessary impurities into them.
Further work on the installation of sewerage in the houseconsists in supplying a pipe from the house system to the cesspool. To do this, a pipe of the appropriate size is laid in the trench with the obligatory observance of the slope indicated in the table. The pipe must be protected from mechanical damage. Careful insulation is not required, since with proper installation, the water in it will drain into the pit without residue. The useful volume of such a structure is considered to be the level of the entrance to the pipe, above which the pit should not be filled.
Use of bacteria
Various bacteria can be used to process the contents. Modern industry produces a large number of drugs, the use of which makes it possible to use the services of a sewer less often.
Drugs are sold mainly in the form of a dry mixture. Diluted in water according to the attached instructions and poured into the pit. The frequency of adding new portions is also indicated in the instructions for a particular drug. The bacteria are doing a good job.