Diseases of tomatoes: types, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Diseases of tomatoes: types, symptoms, treatment and prevention
Diseases of tomatoes: types, symptoms, treatment and prevention
Anonim

Tomatoes can be safely called the most common vegetable crop. They are grown both in open ground and in greenhouses. It is worth noting that diseases can overcome tomatoes absolutely everywhere! Diseases are extremely dangerous - because they instantly spread. Other representatives of the nightshade family, for example, potatoes and eggplant, can also become infected from tomatoes. Today we will talk about tomato diseases and their treatment. A nice bonus at the end of the article is a selection of varieties that are not afraid of almost any disease.

Mosaic

Among the most common viral diseases of tomatoes is mosaic. It is practically untreatable, the only thing that can be done is to provide prevention. Moreover, it is necessary to process the seeds, this must be done before planting. A plant that is already sick is useless to process. It is easy to recognize the mosaic: the leaves acquire an unusual color - light and dark green areas alternate, and yellow spots appear on the fruits. Tomatoes affected by this disease are easiest to remove. By the way, this disease most often affects tomatoes growing in open ground.

Bacteriosis

Another common tomato disease is bacterial wilt. From bacteriosis, the bush begins to wither. By the way, the symptoms usually appear literally overnight! Sometimes inexperienced gardeners think that the reason for this wilting is a banal lack of moisture. However, it is enough to carefully consider a wilted plant to find that the stem is hollow inside, there is liquid. This can cause internal fabrics to take on an unpleasant brown tint.

It is impossible to cure this tomato disease. Plants affected by it must be removed and destroyed as soon as possible. All plants located next to a diseased tomato must be watered with a one percent solution of Fitolavin-300. This should be done even if the plants show no signs of disease. At least 200 milliliters of liquid must be poured under each bush. You can spray all plants with a solution of the same concentration. It will not work to cure those plants that are already sick, but it is quite possible to prevent infection of he althy ones.

Stem necrosis

This tomato disease can be classified as viral. The first signs of necrosis appear on well-developed plants at the time when they begin to form clusters with fruits. The lower part of the stem is covered with small cracks, which initially have a dark green color. Latercracks increase, something similar to the beginnings of air roots appears in them. The leaves of the affected bush begin to wither, the plant falls and dies. Tomatoes, of course, do not have time to ripen.

stem necrosis

The gardeners call the source of this infection contaminated soil or seeds. Bushes sick with necrosis must be pulled out and burned. And the soil should be treated with a 0.2% solution of Fitolavin-300.

Macrosporiosis (Alternaria)

This fungal disease of tomatoes is also called brown spot or dry spot. It usually affects the stems and leaves of the bush, less often the fruits get sick. The development of the fungus begins with the lower leaves. Symptoms are as follows:

  • large rounded spots appear on the leaves;
  • twigs begin to wither;
  • spots appear on the stem;
  • stem rots or dies.

The description of the tomato disease is as follows: dark spots may form near the stalk. They look like they are slightly dented. If the humidity in the greenhouse is high, a dark velvety mold will appear on the surface of the spots. Due to the fact that this disease develops only at high temperatures (about + 25-30 degrees), it is considered to be a disease of tomatoes in a greenhouse. The fungus persists on the ceilings in the greenhouse and on plant debris. Abundant sporulation leads to the fact that the disease spreads very quickly with water drops or wind.

As a preventive measure, tomato bushes should be treated with antifungal drugs, which include copper.Separately, it is worth talking about the fight against tomato disease. As soon as you notice the first symptoms of the disease, treat the bushes with drugs such as Scor and Ridomil Gold. Please note: these are quite strong chemicals, and therefore it is possible to process tomatoes with them only before the ovaries appear on them. In the event that the symptoms of the disease appear, and the fruits are already hanging on the branches, it is better to choose biological products.

Light blight

This disease can certainly be called the most common. This disease is dangerous for open ground tomatoes, but it often affects greenhouse specimens. Phytophthora is a fungus, and therefore it develops where there is dampness. Changes in air temperature can also contribute to development. The disease begins with the fact that the leaves turn black and dry, and then the fruits. How to prevent the reproduction of mushrooms in the greenhouse? Summer residents are advised to take ordinary plastic bottles, cut off their bottom. Small holes should be made on the side (this can be done with a nail). These bottles must be inserted neck down next to the bush in order to water the plants not over the entire surface of the soil, but only through the bottle - immediately to the roots.

Diseases of tomatoes: cladosporiosis

As a preventive measure, it is recommended to use whey - it needs to be sprayed on the bushes. It will prevent the development of disputes. Instead of serum, you can use "Fitosporin", "Barrier" and "Barrier".

Chloratic leaf curl

For those affected by this diseasetomatoes are characterized by light yellow or pale green color, chlorotic appearance and short stature. The top of the plant curls. This disease is caused by two viruses - tobacco necrosis virus and tobacco mosaic virus. Curl is transmitted with infected soil and seeds. You can fight it the same way as with a mosaic - disinfect the seeds before sowing them, and the soil. But plants that are already sick are recommended to be removed.

Leaf curl

Sometimes beginner gardeners confuse chloratic curl with leaf curl on the tops of tomato bushes. The latter is not a disease, rather, it is a consequence of a violation of the conditions of detention and nutrition. There are several reasons for the twist:

  1. Heavy watering, causing the plants to run out of air.
  2. Getting herbicides on tomato leaves and poisoning the plant.
  3. Spraying the bush with a growth stimulant called Tomato.

In the first case, the situation can be corrected - it is enough to regularly loosen the soil around the plant and hill them. But the second and third reasons are more serious: it is unlikely that the tomatoes will be able to recover. Therefore, the plants will have to be removed.

Cladosporiasis

This tomato disease (pictured) is also called brown olive spot. The disease belongs to the category of fungal, it usually affects bushes growing in greenhouses. The disease begins with the lower leaves: yellow chlorotic spots form on the upper side. The spots increase and merge into one large spot. At the same time, a velvety brown color appears on the underside.plaque - spores of the fungus. Leaves curl, dry.

Gray rot

It is worth noting that this disease usually affects flowering bushes. Symptoms can appear at the very beginning of fruiting. Especially acute cladosporiosis occurs at high humidity and low light. Among the reasons are watering with cold water, temperature changes and dampness. Very rarely, the disease affects the fruit. But if this happens, the tomatoes become soft, turn brown and dry out. The only way to combat cladosporiosis is to treat tomatoes with preparations containing copper. It is extremely important to remove all affected leaves before processing.

Septoria

Another name for this fungal disease is white spot. Because of it, the yield decreases, the plant begins to dry out, loses leaves. It is difficult to notice the first symptoms - initially the disease affects the lower leaves: small bright spots appear on them. Later, a small black dot appears in the middle of the spot. Septoria first affects the leaves of the bush, then goes to the petioles and stems. After that, the leaves turn brown and fall off.

Accelerates the spread of this disease high humidity environment, warm weather. Especially quickly septoria develops in the second half of summer. Please note: the disease is not transmitted by seeds. It is necessary to treat a diseased plant with copper-containing preparations. Horus and Tsineb are well suited for this purpose.

Grey Rot

This disease affects tomatoes in a greenhouse. It is characterized by the appearance of brownweeping spots. In one night, the plant is covered with spores of the fungus. It looks like an ash-gray coating. The spots covering the stem are gray-brown, at first they are dry, then become slimy. The disease usually begins at the end of summer, while the viability of the spores can last for two years! Among the causes of gray rot are poor ventilation in the greenhouse, high humidity, and violation of the temperature regime. If the fruits had time to ripen before you noticed signs of the disease, they remain suitable for eating. You can also use tomatoes, which have small whitish spots. But if signs of rot appeared in early summer, and you picked green fruits in order for them to ripen, there is a high risk of infection of he althy fruits harvested for the same purpose.

Treatment of this disease of tomatoes (pictured below) should begin with the removal of leaves that are affected. This will stop the rot and prevent it from getting inside the trunk. We recommend removing the leaves in sunny (even hot weather) so that the cut points dry out within a few hours, and fungal spores do not have time to get on the trunks. After that, sprinkler irrigation should not be carried out. By the way, preventing a disease is much easier than treating it. For prevention, garlic infusion is perfect. For spraying, it is necessary to insist 30 grams of chopped garlic in ten liters of water for two days.

Blossom rot

Phomosis

Speaking of diseases of tomatoes, one cannot fail to mention brown rot, also called phomosis. It develops at the stem.From the outside, it may look like a small dark spot, but inside the tomato is all rotten. Protecting a tomato bush from phomosis is quite simple - for this, you should refuse to feed the plant with fresh manure.

Black leg

This fungal disease affects tomatoes in a greenhouse. Treatment should be started as soon as the first symptoms appear. How is the disease progressing? It all starts with the fact that spores penetrate into weakened plants through the root collar. At the very root, the stem begins to darken, thins out and begins to rot. Five or six days after this, the tomato bush dies. The course of the disease can be accelerated by temperature changes, lack of ventilation, high humidity, if tomatoes are planted too densely.

The main source of this fungal infection is contaminated soil. The disease can spread both with lumps of soil and plant debris, and with seeds. Let's take a closer look at the countermeasures. Of course, it is necessary to plant seedlings on soil free from infection. As pathogens accumulate in the soil, it is necessary to change it. In addition, professionals give the following recommendations:

  • liming the earth;
  • regular soil loosening;
  • watering the earth around the plants with a solution of potassium permanganate (10 liters of water will need 3-5 grams);
  • constant backfilling of the soil around the plants with sand (the layer should be 2 cm);
  • ventilating the greenhouse.

Root rot

Rot can be both a disease of greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers. The main cause of root rot isimproperly prepared soil, in which there is moisture, not rotted manure. In the fight against the disease, only a complete change of soil in the greenhouse can help.

Blossom Rot

Speaking of tomato diseases and their treatment, one cannot fail to mention blossom end rot - a disease that affects only tomato fruits. They have black spots on them. This developmental disorder is caused either by irregular watering or a lack of calcium supplied to the fruits at the very beginning of their growth. By the way, this does not mean at all that this microelement is not enough in the soil. It's just that at too high temperatures, tomatoes cannot absorb it. If the tomatoes grow in a greenhouse, they need to be aired regularly.

Another reason is lack of moisture or excess nitrogen. It is possible that you "overfed" the bushes with liquid manure. If the greenhouse has a normal microclimate, and you didn’t apply fertilizing with nitrogen, but rot still appeared, try fertilizing the tomatoes with calcium. It contains ash, egg shells and dolomite flour. They can be sprinkled when planting seedlings. It should be noted that this method can only be used as a preventive measure. If blossom end rot has already appeared, adding calcium will not help. Another way to protect tomatoes from disease is a mixture of onion peel and shell. One handful of this mixture should be applied to each well when planting. It is no longer possible to save the affected fruits, you just need to remove them. We advise you to follow all the rules for caring for tomatoes, water them with warm water, add calcium nitrate or calcium nitrate under the root - and then on yourfruits will not show signs of this disease.

Fruit cracking

Considering the diseases of tomatoes and the fight against them, it is worth mentioning the cracking of the fruit. To be fair, this is not even a disease, but the consequences of improper plant care. This happens with uneven watering, when the transition from very dry to wet soil is too sharp. Tomato fruits can also crack from an overdose of nitrogen.

Yellow or green spot on stem

Often such a spot is only a varietal feature. But it sometimes appears on the fruits of those varieties for which it is not typical, that is, it is a disease of tomatoes. There is only one method of treatment - shading the plants from the sun. The thing is that such spots occur due to high temperatures. The formation of lycopene is disrupted, the red pigment burns out. This usually happens in hot weather during the ripening of tomatoes.

Silver spots

Often, gardeners growing tomatoes in greenhouses wonder what kind of silver spots appear on the leaves? Experts versed in plant diseases say that this is not a disease and a pest of tomatoes. Silver spots are the result of physiological disorders in the development of bushes. There are two reasons:

  1. Variations in nighttime and daytime temperatures are too extreme.
  2. Genetic deviations of hybrids.

Strick

This viral disease, also called streak, is transmitted through seeds taken from diseased plants. This tomato disease begins with seedlings -leaves and petioles are covered with stripes and spots of red-brown color. The leaves die off, the stems become brittle. To avoid this disease, it is necessary to treat the seeds before planting and in no case use material from diseased plants.

Tomato streak

Oedema

Often there is such a condition of tomato leaves as their swelling. It is not a disease, it is absolutely not contagious. Oedema is a consequence of a violation of the watering regimen of the plant. This happens when the soil temperature is higher than the air temperature. Convex spots appear on tomato leaves that resemble white mold. What to do with the plant? Ventilate more often, increase the amount of sunlight and ensure an increase in air temperature.

Lack of batteries

Often, some deviations in development are not associated with diseases, but with a lack of nutrients in the soil. Let's take a closer look at what the lack of certain substances leads to.

Nutrient

What happens when there is a shortage of it

Nitrogen

Leaves increase significantly in size, trunks thicken, fruits do not set

Phosphorus

The root system of the plant slows down development, resistance to cold and mechanical damage decreases

Potassium

Fruit quality declines, tomatoes dry out quickly, lose disease resistance

Zinc

Leaves curl and die

Magnesium

Leaves turn yellow and curl up

Molybdenum

Leaves turn yellow

Calcium

Head rot develops

Bor

Flowers fall off, fruits do not form, leaves become brittle

Sulfur

The stem of the tomato is thinning, becoming brittle

Iron

Tomato slows down its growth, and its leaves brighten

Disease resistant tomato varieties: names, descriptions

To get a large and high-quality harvest, you need not only to take care of the plants, but also choose varieties that are not afraid of various viral and fungal diseases. Let's talk about them in more detail!

Among the disease-resistant tomatoes, it is worth noting the "bohemia" variety. This determinant hybrid is characterized by medium growth. The variety, gardeners say, is universal. He needs a garter to the support and, of course, stepchildren. By the way, we recommend forming a plant in two stems. The weight of one tomato can reach 700 grams, the color is red with a slight pinkish tint. Subject to all the rules of care, tomatoes of this disease-resistant variety do not crack. About 6 kilograms of crop can be harvested from one bush.

TomatoBohemia

Tomato Blitz deserves special attention. It is equally well suited for both outdoor and greenhouse cultivation. Plant height can reach 79 cm. The average weight of one tomato is 100 grams. The tomato is resistant to diseases: fusarium, necrosis, mosaic. The plant tolerates temperature changes and adverse weather conditions well. Tomatoes of this variety are suitable for salads and preservation.

Among the high-yielding disease-resistant greenhouse tomato varieties, it is worth noting the "Opera F1" variety. The first fruits from it can be harvested already three months after planting seedlings in a permanent place. The height of an adult plant is 1 m. About five kilograms of fruits can be collected from one bush, each weighing 110 grams. The taste of tomatoes is pleasant, harmonious. They are great for salads and preserves. The variety is not afraid of diseases such as mosaic, phomosis, white spotting, late blight. Spartak F1 is also resistant to diseases. Its fruits can reach a weight of two hundred grams. Gardeners note the excellent taste of the fruit. This tomato is medium-late, it can only be grown in a greenhouse. "Virtuoso F1" can also be attributed to greenhouse varieties. It tolerates well not only diseases, but also temperature changes, changes in lighting. "Virtuoso" is not afraid of root rot, mosaic, black leg and brown olive spotting. It is characterized by high yields - at least seven kilograms can be harvested per season.

About five kilograms of deliciousTomatoes can be obtained from one tomato bush with the name "little prince". You can grow this variety both in open ground and under film shelters. The height of an adult plant can reach 45 centimeters, the weight of one fruit is 45-50 grams. This variety is characterized by a stable yield, early maturity, tomatoes ripen together. Among the tomatoes, resistant to diseases, and "fires of Moscow". This tomato is characterized by compactness - its bushes do not grow in height, but in width. That is why, experts say, the variety does not need pinching. By the way, the "lights of Moscow" require a lot of heat, and therefore it is better to grow it in greenhouses. However, residents of the southern regions of our country can safely plant this variety in open ground. The first fruits will appear within 90-105 days after the first shoots have appeared. Tomatoes are smooth and fleshy. Color - rich red, weight - about 100 grams.

Tomato Lights of Moscow

Tomatoes of the "orange giant" variety are also distinguished by high immunity. He is not afraid of almost all pests and diseases that usually affect nightshade crops. Among the advantages of this variety are large-fruited (on average, it is 250-300 grams, but there were also specimens of 650 grams), attractive appearance and bright color, resistance to lack of moisture. Tomato "ray" deserves special attention. It is not only resistant to major diseases, but also holds the record for carotene content in fruits. Tomatoes have a sweetish taste, their color is bright yellow, their shape iselongated oval.

Diseases and tomatoes of the "agata" variety are not terrible. The height of the bush usually ranges from 33 to 45 centimeters. "Agatha" stops growing immediately after the first 4-5 brushes form on it. The variety does not require special care, does not need pinching and garter. The fruits of this tomato are fleshy, with a slight sourness, not watery. The yield depends on the conditions and care, on average it is about 3-5 kilograms per square meter. However, some gardeners collected about 7 kilograms. Very good performance and tomato "de barao". Depending on the soil in which tomatoes grow, their height can reach 3-5 meters! The variety is classified as late-ripening. The color of de barao tomatoes can be black, yellow, pink or red. The taste of the fruit is incredibly delicate, it combines sweetness and sourness. The weight of one tomato is usually about 50-90 grams. With proper care from 1 square meter, you can get at least eight kilograms of fragrant vegetables. In addition to disease resistance, the tomato variety has other advantages:

  • fruit versatility;
  • tender pulp;
  • high yield;
  • unpretentiousness.

The "ranetochka" variety is also good. It is very early - the fruits ripen within 90 days after germination. Vegetables are characterized by low weight (about 30-40 grams), rich red color, pleasant taste, juiciness. It is best to grow tomatoes of this variety under film cover: then they will please not only with early maturity, but also with high yields,exquisite fruit taste, good fruit set. "Ranetochka" is suitable for fresh use and canning. This strain requires tying and bush shaping!

We advise you to pay attention to the "chili verde" tomato. In the middle lane, it should be grown in a greenhouse, but in the southern regions, open ground is also suitable. It has a high yield. The fruits are elongated, green with a pleasant golden blush and exquisite taste. Chili skin does not crack. Vegetables are ideal for pickling and summer salads.

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