Fire hatch: design, GOST, dimensions, installation

Fire hatch: design, GOST, dimensions, installation
Fire hatch: design, GOST, dimensions, installation

The fire hatch is a highly reliable metal structure made of high quality steel. Fire-resistant metal products are used for a snug fit of overlapping exits to the attic or basement, electrical and engineering communications, ventilation chambers and elevator shafts.

fire hatch

A fire hatch with high levels of protection against the spread of smoke is needed in public places such as:

  • Hospitals, clinics and other medical facilities.
  • Administrative buildings.
  • Office buildings and shopping malls.
  • Motels and hotels.
  • Cinemas.
  • Children's preschool and school institutions.

How the structure is mounted correctly, and who has access to it

Installation of fire hatches is carried out exclusively by organizations or individual entrepreneurs that have the appropriate license issued by the Ministry of Emergencies. According to the type of mounting assembly, products are wall, ceiling and floor. Due to the lack of a constant load on the wall hatchesthe thickness of the door leaf and frame is less.

Ceiling hatches are equipped with ladders: vertical or inclined. As for the floor types of structures leading to the basement and subject to significant loads, these products are produced with a reinforced box and a steel sheet with a thickness of up to 2 mm. Walking on the floor hatches is completely safe, as they are very reliable in their strength. They mount the products in accordance with the drafted project documentation, indicating the type, fire resistance limit and interaction with other fire-fighting equipment.

Design and manufacture of PPL

Fire-resistant hatches are made from bent metal profiles and cold-rolled steel sheets. The design of the fire hatch itself has two main components - a box and a door that is hung and fixed to the frame through adjustable hinges. In this case, the canvas can be made of one or two steel plates.

There is a cavity in the frame, which is filled with heat-insulating material. It is also located between the sheets of the canvas, where the content itself and the order of laying its layers play an important role, because it ensures the necessary degree of fire resistance.

fire hatch design

Around the perimeter of the hatch frame is equipped with a heat-sealing tape, which is designed to enhance protection against smoke penetration. When exposed to high temperatures, it swells and expands, thanks to which it even more reliably prevents the spreadhot smoke. Today, according to an individual order, manufacturers can produce a fire hatch:

  • with or without ventilation grille;
  • with one or two leaves;
  • closing with a lock or just a latch.

Different sizes of fire hatches

Actually, in essence, steel fire-resistant hatches are the same as metal doors, but with a smaller area. Their sizes vary from 500×700 mm to 900×1100 mm, which, in fact, depends on the size ofbuilding opening. A fire hatch is installed in all cases where it is not possible to mount a door, as well as in the presence of a basement area and an attic.

fire hatches

In buildings of such classes as F1, F2, F3 and F4, it is allowed to install a fire-fighting device of the second type for exits to the roof or attic from landings. This means that the size of the fire hatch to the attic must correspond to the parameters of 0.6x0.8 m, while it must be equipped with folding metal ladders. Installation is mandatory for buildings with increased requirements for fire safety regulations or with any fire hazard.

By law, these types of structures are required for installations in massively visited premises. A standard attic fire hatch is made of two profiles with an open section, while the thickness of the steel sheet must be strictly 2 mm. When buying, this indicator should be checked using a label confirmingconformity of the purchased product with applicable criteria.

Fire hatches, GOST and criteria

It is worth noting that there is no separate regulation relating specifically to fire hatches. GOST means methods for conducting the necessary tests of metal products for fire resistance in accordance with existing regulations and standards.

attic fire hatch size

According to the specifications, the highest fire resistance threshold of the hatch is 60 minutes. As for the efforts made to open, about 30 kgf can be considered the norm. The installation of both ceiling and floor hatches is only allowed with the hinges outward, since the structure must open upwards. The minimum fire resistance threshold of the product is 6 minutes.

When fire fighting equipment helps

Most organizations and enterprises, in accordance with the requirements of the law, store huge amounts of paper documentation in the archives of their institutions. As a rule, these are buildings of the old type, in which the electrical wiring has not changed for years. Because of this, an increased load on the electrical network threatens with short circuits, due to which spontaneous combustion can occur. As a result, important documentation and other expensive material assets may be irretrievably lost.

fire hatch dimensions

Changing the wiring in a rented room is not rational, and this repair can result in a huge penny. But throughequipping such buildings with fire hatches can still ensure their safety.

Structural maintenance

The maintenance of installed hatches includes preventive inspections and checks, which are supposed to be carried out at least once a quarter and unscheduled after any emergency. The following types of work are considered mandatory:

  • Checking the technical condition of the closer.
  • External inspection of the hatch and checking the condition of its moving parts.
  • Troubleshooting.

Another check of the condition of the moving parts of the entire structure consists of an external inspection, cleaning from dust and dirt, and lubrication. It is very important to timely eliminate various jamming of the mechanism that can be observed during opening. Fire hatches are installed only indoors, where at temperatures from -1 to + 40˚С and normal humidity, their service life will be quite long.

installation of fire hatches

Safety in the service of man

Fire is a destructive and terrible phenomenon. And to insure against it for 100% is almost impossible. But on the other hand, it is quite affordable to significantly reduce the risk of ignition and significantly reduce the likelihood of a fire. And this will help the correct and high-quality installation of a fire hatch. Competent installation of the structure can save not only property, but also human lives.

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