The lack of a centralized drainage system forces private homeowners to use autonomous sewer systems. And this is not the worst solution, as it might seem at first glance. Septic tanks have disadvantages, but along with them there are many advantages in the form of environmental cleanliness, durability and unpretentiousness in maintenance. As for the weaknesses, the complexity of installing an autonomous sewage system is the main disadvantage of such systems, along with the high cost of equipment. However, it is worth starting with a consideration of the very principle of operation of an independent drainage system.
How does autonomous sewage work?
The functional basis of most of these systems is based on the principle of operation of a conventional cesspool, but withsignificant improvements and innovations. These are septic tanks in the form of chambers with several functional blocks, the purpose or number of which may vary depending on the type and model of construction. For example, the principle of operation of an autonomous sewer such as a storage tank involves the provision of processes for collecting, cleaning and settling incoming effluents.
Cleaning is the fundamental difference between even simple septic tanks and cesspools. Actually, because such sewers are called autonomous, they do not require regular pumping out of waste by sewers. The frequency of calls to the services of specialists for emptying equipment is reduced to 1-2 times in several years. As a rule, in the process of settling, aerobic digestion processes occur, which makes the sludge products harmless from the point of view of environmental and sanitary safety for the environment.
Autonomous sewage device
A typical septic tank is a sealed tank made of durable plastic with several sections. Inside are usually placed special biological products like the same aerobic bacteria. Different sections are designed for different technological cleaning operations, including coarse filtration, fermentation, clarification, post-treatment, etc. All chambers are enclosed in one monolithic block, but the configuration of the sections may change, which must be considered at the installation stage.
In an autonomous sewer with the possibility of further pumping out or natural transportation of treated wastewater to the nearest reservoir,for example, special attention is paid to related communications. Usually their basis is formed by plastic pipes connected to the finishing section, through which gravity can be carried out. In some cases, a drainage pump is also built in, which increases the performance of the septic tank.
Features of biological treatment plants
A new generation of septic tanks that provide 100% decomposition of incoming waste products, while leaving usable recycled resources. High-precision biological treatment in this case is achieved through several stages of filtration, settling and fine-bubble aeration. Aerobic bacteria are also involved, which increase the process of decomposition of organic waste. As a result of passing through all these stages and procedures, the waste passes into the state of water and fertilizers. Therefore, in an extended version, the installation of an autonomous sewage system of this type involves not only the installation of basic equipment with filters, but also the technical organization of the possibility of automatically pumping purified water, for example, into a garden.
Main stages of installation work
Initially, a project is drawn up, according to which installation activities will be carried out. As a minimum, you should calculate the characteristics of the septic tank in terms of volume, type of cleaning and additional functions. Usually, the calculation is made for connection to branch communications using pipes with a diameter of 50 to 110 mm. Further standard installationautonomous sewerage in a private house can be performed in the following sequence:
- Earth work. A pit is being dug to accommodate a septic tank and a trench for supplying pipes from plumbing points for collecting waste products. Moreover, the depth of the pit for immersing the structure should not exceed 3 m, taking into account the fact that a place will also be left in the upper part for backfilling and concreting the installation.
- Placement of a septic tank. Modern designs are quite light, so you can dive with subsequent backfilling on your own with a partner.
- Installation of pipes. With the help of special outlet and inlet pipes, plumbing is carried out with pipes leading from home communications.
- Preparation for operation. The septic tanks are filled with clean water, after which the level of presence of biological products is checked. Then you can turn on the device with pumps.
Installation of systems with soil cleaning
This is a combined option, in which soil elements are used as an active filtering component - sand, sandy loam, clay, gravel, etc. Such technical sewers are arranged in different ways. For example, if the groundwater level allows, then it is possible to equip a well with ventilation pipes and effluent delivery channels. The most practical option is the installation of an autonomous sewer with a filter trench. In this case, a perforated pipe is laid, which is subsequently lined with several layers of drainagesand and gravel with insulating windings.
Features of installation of bio-treatment stations
Such septic tanks can take up more space on the site, but their fundamental difference is expressed in the need to create a drainage line with an aerotank and laying a heating cable. In the aerotank, the necessary processes of effluent saturation with small air bubbles take place, and its operation requires an electrical supply from the network. Further questions of the organization of automatic control are solved.
How to install an autonomous sewage system with biological treatment without the need for its constant monitoring? To do this, an alarm system is installed separately to notify the filling level of the tank, an electrical cabinet with controllers is installed and circuits from auxiliary equipment are connected - the same aeration unit, compressor, pump, etc. Stations of this type are initially supplied with electronic filling, so there are problems with the implementation of intelligent control should not occur.
Manufacturers of autonomous sewage systems
In Russia, there is a fairly rich selection of septic tanks of various types. It is recommended to choose entry-level installations from the Chistok, Triton-N and Bars-N families. This is household equipment, which can be used for a small house at no extra cost. In middle-level tasks with higher performance and broad functionality, the Topas, Unilos, Mole, etc. models will help.cleaning, you can also pay attention to the Tver septic tanks, which, depending on the specific version, can serve houses with a number of residents from 1 to 30 people, providing a filtration quality of 98%.
Arrangement of your own sewage system within a private household, of course, eliminates many of the problems that may arise with a centralized wastewater disposal system. But as you can see, septic tanks also require the solution of very important tasks.
In addition, one should prepare for serious financial expenses. For example, the autonomous sewage system "Topas" in the latest lines is available for an amount from 70 to 110 thousand rubles. on average (depending on volume and feature set). And this applies to equipment with conventional cleaning, but the inclusion of high-tech options will also add a considerable percentage to the cost. But even despite such costs, as user reviews show, the ease of use and savings on the services of a sewer fully justify the operation of an autonomous sewer.