Houses are buildings designed primarily for human habitation. Only sometimes in such buildings, in addition, most often on the ground floor, shops, hairdressers or any other similar establishments can be located.
In Russia, as in most other countries of the world, the main types of residential buildings are suburban private houses and high-rise buildings in large settlements. The constructions of buildings of both these types, in turn, can also be different.
Types of country houses
Such structures are usually very small. Most often these are one-story houses of a small area. This group also includes two-, three- and four-storey cottages. This type of building can be classified by:
in terms of the material used to build the walls;
Classification by type of material used in construction
In this regard, there are two types of country houses:
Kthe categories of lungs include those whose weight is less than the tangential heaving forces in the areas on which they are built. Usually this category includes buildings erected from wood: chopped, cobbled, panel.
The weight of heavy houses at the same time exceeds the forces of heaving on the site. This group includes buildings built of concrete, brick, stone, etc. Actually, in terms of planning, architecture and construction, wooden houses usually differ little from stone ones.
Differences in architectural features
In suburban areas, houses of various layouts can be built. However, all such buildings in terms of architecture can be divided into two broad categories:
On the box of houses of the first type, low roofs with cold attics are erected. Such buildings can have any number of storeys. What unites them in the first place is a cold attic, used exclusively for household purposes.
Attic country houses can also have 1-4 floors. However, the attic of such buildings is always insulated and can be used to equip residential premises. The construction of houses of this type is cheaper for their owners than ordinary ones. However, living on the attic floor, of course, is somewhat less convenient than on a full-fledged floor.
The roof structure of country houses (both varieties) can be any. But most often, attics are equipped under roofs with four-slope, hip or two-slope broken lines. Ordinary houses with cold attics in most cases are builtwith gable or even pitched roofs.
Differences in Purpose
Country low-rise buildings can be used for different purposes. By purpose, such houses are classified into:
Country houses - the most simple and inexpensive type of country house. Such buildings are usually used by their owners only during the summer season. The design of the house of this variety is extremely simple.
Cottages, also often built on suburban areas, are residential buildings. Such facilities are operated year-round. Also, they are usually equipped with communications necessary for comfortable living of residents - sewerage, hot water and cold water systems, heating network.
Mansions are, in fact, the same cottages, but only more expensive. Such buildings have several levels, and their construction is carried out according to individual projects.
Villas are also very expensive country houses. What distinguishes them from mansions is that they are usually located on the seashore and have, accordingly, a marine design.
Ecohouses are an innovative type of building built in areas with unpolluted nature. Materials in the construction of such structures are also used exclusively environmentally friendly.
Residences are the most elite type of country houses. These buildings are inhabited bywe althy people. They are residences, in fact, a whole complex of buildings with a huge number of residential and utility rooms.
Classification by number of floors
The design of residential buildings of a country type can be, therefore, different. At the same time, such buildings can differ in height. Country houses, for example, in most cases have only one floor. Also, one-story residential buildings are quite common in our country.
Recently, many Russians are building themselves cottages with several floors - 2-4. Such houses are considered somewhat less comfortable for living. After all, their owners often have to walk up the stairs. But less land is used for the construction of such houses. At the same time, the owners of a cottage of 2-4 floors do not have to spend too much on building a foundation.
Country house elements
What types of houses are built by design in Russia outside the city, we thus found out. Low-rise private buildings in our country can be built from different materials, have different number of floors, area and weight.
However, most types of such houses, with the exception of mansions, villas and residences, usually have a very simple architecture. The main elements of individual residential buildings erected outside the city are:
foundation - the foundation of the building on which all its structures rest;
blind area - a tape constructed from materials with waterproofing properties around the perimeter of the house,designed to protect the foundation from rain and flood water;
floors - the lowest floor separating the foundation and basement from the floors of the house;
walls - vertical building envelopes, which in turn can be external, internal, loaded and unloaded;
partitions - vertical elements separating the premises of the house;
interfloor ceilings - horizontal structures separating the levels of the house;
roof of the house - a structure designed to protect the interior of the building from precipitation.
Sometimes balconies and loggias can also be included in the design of a country building.
Types of multi-storey buildings
Such residential buildings are being built in cities and large towns. Sometimes they can also be seen in very large villages. They are houses of this type of building above one floor, with a large number of apartments equipped inside.
Buildings of this type can be classified:
used for the construction of materials;
- by number of storeys.
Classification by architecture and layout
In this regard, the following types of multi-storey buildings are distinguished:
Stalin's houses were builtin the USSR since the 1920s. Buildings of this type are usually located in the center of the settlement, and housing here is expensive. The design of houses built during the reign of Stalin makes it possible to equip apartments with very high ceilings inside them. The walls in the dwellings in such buildings are very thick. At the same time, the apartments have a large area and good lighting. Rooms in Stalinist buildings are in most cases isolated.
Khrushchev's houses were built in our country from 1956 to 1985. At first they were built of brick. However, in the 60s this material was replaced by a more economical one - concrete blocks and reinforced concrete panels. By design, brick houses of this type are no different from panel or block houses. The ceilings in apartments in such buildings are much lower than in stalinkas. The rooms in Khrushchev and small area differ. Bathrooms in such buildings are usually combined, and kitchens and balconies are small.
A distinctive feature of the Brezhnev houses is a large number of floors. Residential urban buildings of this type were built in the USSR from 1965 to 1980. By design, apartment buildings of this type are similar to Khrushchevs. But apartments in such high-rise buildings are somewhat more comfortable for living. Also in Brezhnevka usually there is an elevator. The dwellings here are equipped with a shared bathroom. Also, houses of this type differ from Khrushchev houses in that the rooms in the apartments are usually isolated here.
New buildings in Russia began to be erected at the end of the last century. Apartments in such houses can have a very different atypical layout. FromKhrushchev and Brezhnevka new buildings are also distinguished by their thicker walls. Balconies in such houses are usually also small. However, the living rooms and kitchens themselves here have a significant area.
Types of houses by design: wall material
Multi-storey city buildings can be built from different materials. Sometimes such houses can even be panel, chopped or cobbled. But such building materials are usually used only for the construction of low-rise apartment buildings with 2-3 floors.
In most cases, of course, urban high-rise buildings are stone structures built from heavy elements. Most often, reinforced concrete slabs or bricks are used for the construction of such houses. Also, sometimes concrete blocks are used for the construction of buildings of this type. In some cases, urban high-rise buildings can also be monolithic.
The most comfortable multi-apartment buildings are those built of brick. The load-bearing structures of houses of this type are durable, reliable and have a long service life. The advantages of such buildings also include the high heat capacity of the walls. In addition, the walls in such houses are highly soundproof.
Panel houses are somewhat inferior to brick houses in terms of performance. Such buildings are erected from ready-made reinforced concrete slabs. The design of this type of house is simple. At the same time, they are built quickly. Accordingly, the apartments here are inexpensive. The sound and heat insulation of such buildings is not very good.
The advantage of monolithic houses in the first place is the speed of construction. The walls of buildings of this type are poured directly on the spot. The performance characteristics of such houses are slightly better than those of panel houses, and worse than those of brick houses.
Block buildings are built from large concrete blocks. The walls of such houses are often quite thick. The sound and heat insulation of buildings of this type is almost the same as that of brick buildings.
Series of houses
Apartments in high-rise buildings can vary significantly in layout. For example, brick residential city buildings can belong to the series K-7, 1-335, 1-515 (Khrushchev), Tishinskaya Tower, Smirnovskaya Tower (Brezhnevka), 1-225, 1-414 (Stalinka), P-3M, 2-29 (new buildings).
In houses of different series, apartments of a certain layout are equipped. At the same time, dwellings can differ in area, size of the kitchen, loggia, corridors, number of pantries, etc. In the houses of some series, the bathrooms are combined, in others, the bath and the restroom are separate rooms. At the same time, the premises in apartments can be isolated or walk-through.
Classification of multi-storey buildings by layout
The layout of apartment buildings can therefore be different. The same applies to the material used to build the walls. However, the actual construction of brick, block, panel or monolithic houses can basically only be:
The mosta common type of multi-storey buildings in Russia today are sectional. Apartments in houses of this type are located on a floor-by-floor basis. At the same time, their location is associated with the vertical elements of the building: elevator shafts, stairs. Usually, the doors of four apartments open onto one landing in such buildings.
Gallery and corridor houses
The design of residential buildings of gallery or corridor type is such that such buildings have a horizontal layout inside. In high-rise buildings of the first type, apartments are located along the walls of long corridors equipped on each floor. In gallery houses, apartments are located, respectively, along the galleries.
Sometimes mixed-type residential buildings can be erected in large settlements. By design, multi-storey buildings of this variety differ from those described above. Most often, two-level apartments are equipped in such buildings. At the same time, the entrance to residential premises in houses of this type can be equipped from the street or from the corridor. In the latter case, the corridors in the building are arranged through the floor.
Types of houses by number of floors
In this regard, there are four types of urban high-rise buildings. Residential buildings can be built on the territory of our country:
- mid-rise - 2-5 floors;
- elevated - 6-10 floors;
- multi-storey - 10-29;
- high-rise - from 30 to 100 floors or more.
Evacuation of people in case of fire from buildings of the first three types, according to the rules, is carried out using special stairs. In high-rise buildings for this purpose,in addition to stairs, specially designed elevators can be used.
How high-rise buildings can be built
According to the method of construction, apartment buildings are classified into:
- national teams;
Brick houses are built in the traditional way. During the construction of the walls of high-rise buildings, this material is laid with dressing of seams in several rows. The result is a thick and reliable building envelope.
Prefabricated houses are built from small or large-sized elements. That is, such buildings are constructed from products prefabricated at enterprises - mainly from large blocks and panels.
Monolithic houses can be built from light or heavy concrete. The walls of such buildings are poured directly on the construction site - in the formwork. In order for the enclosing structures to be strong, they are additionally reinforced with metal rods.
Prefabricated-monolithic houses are combined structures. Part of the structure of such buildings can be assembled from prefabricated elements, and part can be poured into the formwork directly on site.