There are a large number of cities in the world. In each of them live people who rarely think about how this or that settlement appeared, and are not interested in what urban planning is, why this system helps not only to build the necessary facilities, but also competently and logically combine them into a single composition. How this area and architecture are interconnected, when they appeared and merged, which served as an impetus for their high development - all this will be discussed in detail later.
History of urban planning
It didn't start with the advent of urban planning departments. Officially, this term in its modern meaning was established at the end of the 19th century. However, in order to answer the question of what urban planning is, it is necessary to get acquainted with its history, which begins from the time when primitive people appeared. Then there was no wayto move freely around the globe, so the families were very large, including all relatives. Such a community really resembled a mini-city, where there was a living area, space for crafts and other necessary areas and facilities. Over time, large families began to unite and exchange the most valuable and useful with each other. Thus, trade relations began to emerge, the foundation of which was handicraft activity. This showed its difference from the village, which accounted for most of the agricultural work.
As communities unified, cities began to have clear zoning. Residential quarters began to be located separately from commercial and business. The first developed cities appeared in the Ancient East, Egypt and Greece. All of them were built near rivers. The best examples of orderly development are the ancient cities located in the territories of present-day Iraq and Iran. The streets there were built only at right angles, the location on both banks of the rivers made it possible to clearly divide the city into business and residential zones. Many cities in other states were built on the same principle. Much attention began to be paid to the formation and design of the city center, often it was the main square, surrounded by buildings, the appearance of which was assembled into a single composition. True, for some time in the Middle Ages, chaos was observed in Russia and Europe, which was due to frequent wars. The settlements were more like fortresses than settlements. The formation of town planning committees was due to the fact that in many historicalIn cities, ancient buildings began to require restoration, and the tourist attractiveness of these places has also become relevant. As transport links developed, travel became easier, and, of course, the heads of cities wanted to present themselves and the city from the best side.
History of architecture formation
What is urban planning? It is a system that cannot develop without architecture. It all started with the simplest, because in ancient times beauty faded into the background, the main thing was to survive and protect yourself. The first houses were built literally from improvised materials: large stones, wooden branches, even river mud was used for decoration. The source of the construction of beautiful structures was the belief in pagan gods and their worship. For example, the shape and height of the Egyptian pyramids symbolize that only the chosen people are worthy of the patronage and favor of the sun god. Tombs, dolmens and are the first architectural sights.
Architectural masterpieces have always been created taking into account philosophical and religious beliefs, as well as climatic features of the area. The first stone masterpieces appeared in Ancient Egypt due to the fact that stone was mined in the area, which is in abundance there. In ancient Babylon, buildings were built of raw brick, first of all, high temples with semicircular domes deserve attention. Persia became famous for its palaces, and in ancient Greece they tried to give beauty to buildings for ordinary people, without social status.Here it was believed that every person is a god living on Earth. Countries in which the main religion is Islam willingly introduced the styles of those states that they managed to win in wars. This manifested itself in the construction of temples and palaces. The hallmark of the architecture of Ancient Russia are wooden buildings. This style is called "Russian wooden architecture". After the adoption of Christianity, it began to be supplemented by the traditions of Byzantine architecture.
From the second half of the 19th century. in Russia and Europe, a tendency began to be observed to combine different styles and trends, and it continues to this day. However, no matter how they are synthesized, three parameters remain unchanged: any building must be pleasing to the eye, provide comfort, be reliable and durable for many years. It should be noted that this goal can be achieved. All over the world you can find unique buildings that delight the eye and soul for several millennia and have a rich history, but there are also completely new buildings that are no less interesting. This means that the architecture is evolving.
Any modern settlement cannot be imagined without trees, shrubs and other vegetation. Their value has been valued at all times. The Babylonian Gardens of Babylon are the most famous. Initially, their main task was to emphasize the beauty of the mansions of noble people. In addition to the composition of plants, they were complemented by sculptures, pools and gazebos. Such gardens arefounders of modern city squares and parks. Temples were not deprived of attention either.
As for city streets, they began to actively plant trees and shrubs in the 20th century. This was facilitated by the rapid development of industry and transport. If in past centuries plants were planted solely for beauty, now they have one more task - to improve the microclimate: to make the air cleaner, to reduce the noise level. This is especially true for large cities with a population of about a million people and for those where heavy industry and metallurgy are developed.
It should be noted that in Russia before the reign of Peter the Great, no attention was paid to landscaping at all. The gardens had an exclusively practical orientation, they were used for growing fruits. The first masterpieces of landscape architecture appeared at the beginning of the 18th century, when the introduction of European culture began in Russia and the construction of St. Petersburg was underway. The Summer Garden and suburban parks are world-class pride and cultural heritage.
Structure of the Department of Urban Planning and Architecture
The position of chairman is held by the chief architect of the city, his main assistants are advisers. The highest level consists of two divisions:
1. Legal. Its functions:
- Controls the observance of the rights and freedoms of citizens and developers who build facilities.
- Checks the legality of each building in accordance with the RF Urban Development Code.
- Refers cases to thecourts.
2. Personnel. Features:
- Works with employees' documents.
- Approves staffing, vacation schedules and distribution of working hours.
- Issues certificates, prepares documents for the admission and dismissal of employees.
- Participates in carrying out activities for certification and advanced training of employees.
The next link is the vice chairmen. They oversee the following units:
- Urban planning policy and land use. This division is responsible for the planning and zoning of the area, as well as for the effective use of each territory. Organizes commissions conducting research on promising sites that are planned to be built up. Analyzes indicators of economic development.
- Infrastructural. Monitors the state of urban communications: street lighting, water and gas networks, electrical substations, urban transport.
- Financial and economic. Distributes state and regional funds aimed at improving all life support systems of the settlement and its inhabitants. Concludes contracts with suppliers.
- Informational. Responsible for the timely communication to citizens of information about upcoming work and the necessary temporary or fundamental changes in the usual life of citizens. Carries out cooperation with the media. This division also includes an archive department.
- Landscape architecture and aesthetics. Engaged in designand the design of buildings, green spaces, the creation and preservation of historical heritage, which is represented by monuments, monuments and ancient buildings. Creates a comfortable environment for the development of the tourist attractiveness of the city.
The main activities of the urban planning department
- The Department of Architecture and Urban Planning belongs to the executive power system of the region. Its main task is to form political programs aimed at creating a competent planning and architectural appearance of the region's settlements, in accordance with state laws.
- The legal charter of the department is specified in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, as well as in the regional code, which takes into account the special provisions of settlements: climatic zone, terrain features, etc.
- Urban Development Department monitors compliance with laws in this area. In case of its violation, it calls for administrative and criminal liability of unscrupulous developers and site owners.
- Is in constant interaction with the head of the city and the region, as well as with representatives of the Russian Academy of Architecture and local design services.
- The head of the region regulates the number of employees of the department of architecture and urban planning, their salaries, approves the regular mode of operation.
- The Department maintains contact with the residents of the settlement, considers their appeals and wishes. Carries out timely checks of urban areas for the presence of variousviolations such as illegal construction and others.
- The Committee for Architecture and Urban Planning of the Regional Administration is a legal entity. It has its own stamp, letterhead and bank account.
- Funds for its maintenance are allocated from the regional budget.
Main tasks of the department
- Make sure that any approved architectural project is aimed at improving living conditions for citizens, preserving and increasing natural resources, maintaining a favorable environmental situation.
- Improve the architectural appearance so that the external beauty of the buildings does not hide the ugly internal content.
- Keeping the state of all city communications under control. Where possible, introduce more modern and progressive technical designs.
- Make sure that unauthorized buildings are not erected, document all new buildings.
- Improve the tourism attractiveness of the region through the preservation of historical heritage.
Functions of urban management
- To take an active part in the modernization, improvement and creation of new laws aimed at creating a comfortable urban environment. Regularly submit them for consideration to regional and city administrations.
- Develop a new political system of architecture and urban planning andactively implement previously approved, but not fully implemented, in accordance with the direction of the future development of the city, region, region.
- Regularly organize research work in the region. Document the results achieved during their implementation, take into account new discoveries.
- In accordance with the wishes of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Committee for Urban Planning and Architecture is developing new targeted programs for the territorial improvement of settlements. He gets acquainted with the developments of other regions, notes their undertakings and achievements, adopts the best of them.
- Control the activities of the owners of private territories so that they do not contradict the principles of urban infrastructure development, document the legality of buildings under construction.
- Organization and implementation of expert work that determines the degree of wear, reliability and general condition of facilities and communications.
- Contests for the best architectural and urban planning project.
- Maintaining an archive where documents are stored for each city building and object, in which their history is described in detail.
- Register the transfer of land from municipal to private ownership and vice versa.
- Monitor how effectively and efficiently regional and city territories are used.
- Regularly take part in appraisal events for employees to improve their skills and experience.
- Timely inform the authorities and the public about upcoming activities toreconstruction, modernization and construction of new communications, buildings and other facilities.
- To train new specialists in the field of management of architectural and urban planning activities.
- Participate in international conferences to exchange experiences and develop partnerships between states.
- Within their sphere, issue laws and orders that all representatives of the urban planning industry are obliged to comply with: architects, sculptors, utilities, builders and designers, landscape designers and city business leaders.
- Conduct consultations for all initiators of changes and innovations in the architectural appearance of the region's settlements.
- Create orders for the development of new transformations, research, projects on behalf of the administration.
- Form a single set of rules and conditions for reviewing orders and providing the necessary documentation to allow approval of initiatives.
- Check the construction sites for compliance with all necessary criteria: geological, climatic, architectural and aesthetic. In case of non-compliance with the necessary standards, the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning of the region or territory should require the elimination of deficiencies up to the re-drafting of the project.
- To decide on the termination of construction and demolition of objects built with violations. Submit applications to the courts for the elimination of damage, seizure of land, fines. impose an administrativeand criminal liability.
- The department of architecture and urban planning of the city and the region must control each stage of repair and construction, document their results. Check all construction organizations for compliance with the competence to perform these works.
- Carry out competent planning of the budget allocated by the administration of the city and region.
- Conduct meetings with the civilian population, take into account their wishes and complaints. If necessary, consider issues of providing various compensations if the urban development works cause temporary inconvenience.
- To take part in all events and conferences organized by the government of the Russian Federation. Be constantly informed about any changes in federal legislation and implement them in your region.
- Distribute responsibility for conducting architectural and urban planning activities between the leaders of all settlements of the region, region, district.
- To promote the creation of new state companies for the improvement and restoration of cities, to promote their activities.
SNiP urban planning
Deciphering this abbreviation - "building codes and regulations". The document confirming their legality was approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in 1998. It is adjusted annually, but the basic rules have remained unchanged for 20 years.
- When developing projects in the field of urban planning, planning and developmentareas, in addition to taking into account climatic and geological factors, such aspects as population size and its prospective increase or decrease, demographic situation, industrial and agricultural potential should be taken into account.
- The boundaries of territories and microdistricts can be main streets, park areas and other intermediate areas between residential and industrial zones.
- Historical development areas are given a special status, they are among the main attractions of the settlement, in some cases they acquire global significance, such as the historical centers of Moscow and St. Petersburg. It is in these places that the famous buildings and monuments are located, which have been masterpieces for several centuries.
- Industrial areas with heavy industry enterprises should be removed from the residential sector by at least 2-3 km. In addition, such factories should be equipped with filters to reduce harmful emissions.
- In regions where the probability of earthquakes is high, zones should be distributed according to the degree of danger. In the most earthquake-prone areas, it is better to place light buildings, sports grounds, parks.
- Dacha plots are placed taking into account the prospective growth of the settlement. The minimum distance between them and the city should be 5-7 km for small towns and at least 15-20 km for megacities.
- In residential areas, it is allowed to have jointly multi-apartment and private houses, business, cultural and other objects that do not cause harmecology and human he alth.
- According to the laws of the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, the development of business, industrial zones is recommended in close proximity to the main city highways. However, residential areas are best located on quieter streets. Despite the fact that vehicles do not seem harmful to many, nevertheless, its quantity can worsen air quality, because it gives off a lot of exhaust gases to the atmosphere.
- When constructing industrial zones, it is important that factories are differentiated according to the degree of harmful impact on the environment. You should not have, for example, a metallurgical plant and a bakery plant in the same block.
- The distance between railway tracks and residential buildings should be at least 150 m. If it passes near summer cottages, then the right-of-way can be reduced to 100 m.
- When placing urban objects, attention should also be paid to the wind rose. It is necessary to identify the prevailing direction of air circulation. Residential buildings, office buildings and social facilities should be located in the direction of the main wind. Heavy industries on the opposite side. This will help protect communities from the harmful effects of factory emissions.
- Reserved places controlled by the city are protected by the state in accordance with the law on nature protection. They are forbidden to be used for construction and any economic activity, hunting and fishing. It is only allowed to erect separate structures that are directly related to these places and are notare contrary to the urban planning standards of the districts.
Urban planning and architecture are two important systems that help to maintain a harmonious city appearance through the competent use of land. All artistically planned neighborhoods, parks, business and even industrial zones are indicators of the continuous development and improvement of these areas. Over the centuries, principles, vision, ideals, and even the meaning of terms have changed in them. For example, we all know that an architect is a specialist who designs buildings. However, a few centuries ago, he was not only the creator of ideas, but also took an active part in the construction of future objects, being a senior builder.
In each district, region, urban planning and architecture have been and are going through their own individual path of development. If we recall history, we can give many examples of cities that have not survived to this day, but in ancient times were prosperous and with high prospects. Some managed to resist and become centers that organically combine antiquity and modernity. There are also very young settlements, but in their beauty and logical reasonableness they are in no way inferior to older ones.
Of course, the concept of the age of cities is relative. Of much greater importance is the desire of specialists responsible for their appearance to continuously move forward, take a responsible attitude to laws and inspire residents by their example, introduce newprojects aimed at improving the quality of life. Ordinary citizens, being in constant fuss, rarely think about how the places where they were born, raised, educated and work appeared. What is urban planning? This is an interesting industry with its unique structure, rules and laws aimed at improving the human condition.